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Wagner, W.H. 1998. Biological and conservation status of two species of Minnesota Botrychium. Final report submitted to the Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. unpaged.


A field project was carried out to analyze the status of two rare species of Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae). Several definite conclusions were reached: (1) the alleged B. pseudopinnatum from Minnesota Point has proved to be merely an unusual form of the common B. matricariifolium. (2) the proper time to study the possible new species that appears to be intermediate between B. multifidum and B. rugulosum is middle to late summer. It is fairly common locally at a site near Gilbert. The University of Minnesota Duluth Herbarium (Olga Lakela Herbarium) provided funds for a workshop lecture in connection with this Natural Heritage Project, so it was possible to prepare a number of individuals to volunteer for the field study. Resulting from this interaction and the field work, a number of important new discoveries were made, including occurrences of B. lanceolatum, B. pallidum, B. michiganense (still undescribed new species), and a remarkable range extension for the rare western B. ascendens. Another discovery in 1998 involves the rare and elusive B. spathulatum, which was found for the first time by one of the participants. Our knowledge of grapeferns and moonworts has thus been greatly expanded as a result of this project, and we are now contemplating the writing of a new book on the pteridophytes of Minnesota, to include the newly acquired knowledge.

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