Observed Canadian fire danger indexes

Updated 13:00 2014-04-18

Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Agassiz 46 35 0.0 12 87.9 9.0 20.6 8.4 9.0 8.3
Badoura 46 34 0.0 7 87.5 6.9 12.5 5.3 6.8 4.7
Baudette 45 29 0.0 8 87.8 7.4 17.3 6.0 7.4 5.5
Bemidji 47 28 0.0 16 89.5 13.0 45.5 14.6 15.2 16.5
Bigstone 43 63 0.0 16 82.5 21.1 217.7 5.5 34.0 11.6
Brainerd 44 43 0.0 9 85.0 6.5 10.4 4.4 6.3 3.7
Camp Ripley/Little Falls 42 52 0.0 12 70.0 7.4 29.2 1.7 9.0 0.9
Carlos Avery 46 47 0.16 8 49.2 7.0 28.8 0.3 8.7 0.2
Cass Lake 47 31 0.0 11 88.3 12.7 45.4 8.2 14.9 10.4
Cutfoot 49 26 0.0 5 88.4 9.1 20.8 5.1 9.0 5.3
Detroit Lakes 45 38 0.0 19
Effie 45 27 0.0 6
Ely 40 39 0.0 5
Fernberg 41 44 0.1 5
Grand Portage 36 72 0.33 7
Hibbing 44 30 0.0 5
Hill City 49 28 0.0 5 87.7 7.9 24.7 4.6 8.8 4.7
Isabella 43 43 0.21 4
Itasca 46 30 0.0 7 88.3 7.3 21.5 6.0 7.9 5.7
Kelliher 46 28 0.0 10 88.7 9.0 20.7 8.0 9.0 8.0
Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Litchfield 46 54 0.0 11 81.5 15.0 87.0 3.3 21.0 5.5
Littlefork 43 28 0.0 10
Meander USFS 43 29 0.0 4
MN Valley 49 49 0.0 8 59.9 9.8 21.6 0.8 9.7 0.5
Moose Lake 45 31 0.0 7
Mora 44 44 0.0 7 83.4 5.8 21.0 3.0 6.8 2.4
Orr 43 26 0.0 6
Redstn 56 48 0.0 10 77.1 19.5 257.3 2.0 32.8 4.4
Rice Lake 45 35 0.0 8 85.2 6.5 16.2 4.1 6.5 3.5
Roseau 46 34 0.0 15 88.1 8.4 20.0 11.0 8.4 10.2
Saginaw 44 33 0.0 5
Seagull Lake 41 43 0.03 7 69.7 8.3 113.9 1.1 14.1 0.8
Sherburne 46 44 0.0 8 83.8 10.8 61.8 3.4 15.0 4.7
St. Croix 48 32 0.0 5 66.6 3.6 4.1 0.8 3.3 0.3
Voyageurs/Kabnam 44 28 0.0 0

Interpretation

The following chart is a statewide generalized fire danger rating chart for the Canadian Fire Weather Index. It is based on a five class danger rating system, i.e., low, moderate, high, very high , and extreme. The distribution is based on weather records from 1985 - 1998. Low days occurred 45% to 50% of the time, moderate - 30 %, high days - 12% to 15%, very high days occurred 7%-8% of the time, and extreme days were 2%-3%. This is not meant to be used as a staffing guide . Each area needs to look at its own weather data coupled with its fire occurrence data. For instance, if you have a drought code of 380, it does not mean you are in extreme fire danger. It means that the drought code only gets that high on 2% of the days between April 1 and November 1.

Index Low Moderate High Very High Extreme

FFMC

0.0 - 80.9

81.0 - 87.9

88.0 - 90.4

90.5 - 92.4

92.5+

DMC

0.0 - 12.9

13.0 - 27.9

28.0 - 41.9

42.0 - 62.9

63.0+

DC

0.0 - 79.9

80.0 - 209.9

210.0 - 273.9

274.0 - 359.9

360.0+

ISI

0.0 - 3.9

4.0 - 7.9

8.0 - 10.9

11.0 - 18.9

19.0+

BUI

0.0 - 18.9

19.0 - 33.9

34.0 - 53.9

54.0 - 76.9

77.0+

FWI

0.0 - 4.9

5.0 - 13.9

14.0 - 20.9

21.0 - 32.9

33.0+

Definitions

Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC)

This provides a relative indicator of the moisture in the fine fuels. Like the 1 hour fuel moisture, it reacts directly with the air temperature and relative humidity.

Duff Moisture Code (DMC)

This is an index of the moisture of the loosely compact organic layers at a depth of 2-4 inches.

Drought Code (DC)

This measures long term dryness in the fuels. It is a longer term index than the NFDRS 1000 fuel moisture. It doesn't reflect the probability of fire occurrence by itself, but can be useful in predicting the level of mop up needed and the consumption of large fuels. It should be looked at in relation to peat fire starts.

Initial Spread Index (ISI)

This is based on the FFMC and the wind speed. It provides a relative numerical rating of the expected rate of spread. This is similar to the NFDRS Spread Component.

Buildup Index (BUI)

This index is based on the DC and the DMC. It provides a relative indication of the amount of fuel available for combustion. This is somewhat similar to the NFDRS Energy Release Component. It doesn't predict what a given day might be like, but does relate well to the dryness of the fuels.

Fire Weather Index (FWI)

This combines the BUI and the ISI to give a relative numerical rating of fire intensity. It can be compared to the NFDRS Burning Index.