Observed Canadian fire danger indexes

Updated 13:00 2015-05-03

Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Agassiz 63 29 0.0 14 92.9 65.7 298.2 20.2 84.8 46.0
Badoura 68 29 0.0 8 91.1 33.3 336.6 9.6 53.5 22.4
Baudette 62 38 0.0 11 91.4 54.7 167.3 12.8 60.2 28.9
Bemidji 61 35 0.0 12 91.6 40.0 230.1 14.3 55.8 30.1
Bigstone 68 39 0.0 24 91.1 59.7 292.1 35.3 79.0 63.0
Brainerd 62 78 0.07 3 71.7 32.2 159.0 0.8 42.8 1.9
Camp Ripley/Little Falls 75 39 0.02 9 90.0 45.8 157.2 8.9 53.0 21.0
Carlos Avery 75 48 0.0 5 90.3 52.7 190.2 6.7 62.3 18.7
Cass Lake 63 34 0.0 9 91.5 39.2 315.4 11.0 59.8 26.1
Cutfoot 67 32 0.0 3 91.0 43.5 261.2 6.4 61.4 17.8
Detroit Lakes 67 31 0.05 17 88.4 54.0 352.1 13.5 78.1 34.1
Effie 63 34 0.0 16 91.5 45.9 246.8 19.4 62.6 39.0
Ely 74 24 0.0 12 92.9 38.3 46.8 17.2 37.9 28.4
Fernberg 72 27 0.06 12
Grand Portage 79 22 0.0 6 93.0 22.1 40.0 10.6 21.9 15.4
Hibbing 74 20 0.0 19 93.8 43.2 239.2 34.4 59.6 54.6
Hill City 75 23 0.0 7 93.2 46.1 186.6 11.9 57.0 26.8
Isabella 74 23 0.0 7 92.0 31.5 44.3 10.1 31.1 17.6
Itasca 63 35 0.01 8 91.8 54.8 343.4 10.6 78.4 29.0
Kelliher 62 37 0.03 9 88.6 51.3 223.9 7.2 65.3 20.3
Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Kittson 63 33 0.0 12 92.0 46.1 352.6 15.0 69.5 34.5
Litchfield 77 47 0.0 9 90.5 41.9 222.8 9.5 57.0 22.9
Littlefork 66 27 0.0 13 93.1 52.8 206.8 19.0 64.5 38.9
Meander USFS 73 23 0.0 8 93.1 35.6 86.3 12.7 35.6 22.2
MN Valley 77 44 0.0 5 90.1 101.4 266.0 6.6 103.9 24.0
Moose Lake 75 38 0.01 10 92.0 45.4 181.3 12.8 55.8 27.9
Mora 74 51 0.0 5 89.8 51.2 133.7 6.3 52.3 16.2
Orr 65 35 0.0 13 91.9 48.2 224.9 16.1 62.8 34.5
Redstn 77 45 0.0 13 90.8 42.3 170.7 13.8 52.2 28.4
Rice Lake 72 35 0.02 7 90.5 46.3 114.2 8.1 46.3 18.4
Roseau 63 31 0.0 16 92.5 55.0 306.5 22.5 76.0 46.9
Saginaw 76 29 0.0 5 92.5 44.6 107.0 9.1 44.5 19.6
Seagull Lake 75 20 0.01 11 93.7 34.3 54.8 17.8 34.0 27.5
Sherburne 72 55 0.0 3 89.3 38.2 196.5 5.0 51.4 13.4
Skibo 77 17 0.0 10 94.7 37.1 47.3 18.6 36.7 29.5
St. Croix 75 45 0.0 6 91.0 46.5 66.7 8.1 46.2 18.3
Superior #2 73 25 0.02 3 92.2 34.6 68.9 7.4 34.5 14.8
Voyageurs/Kabnam 68 29 0.0 7 92.8 42.0 113.0 11.2 43.6 22.5

Interpretation

The following chart is a statewide generalized fire danger rating chart for the Canadian Fire Weather Index. It is based on a five class danger rating system, i.e., low, moderate, high, very high , and extreme. The distribution is based on weather records from 1985 - 1998. Low days occurred 45% to 50% of the time, moderate - 30 %, high days - 12% to 15%, very high days occurred 7%-8% of the time, and extreme days were 2%-3%. This is not meant to be used as a staffing guide . Each area needs to look at its own weather data coupled with its fire occurrence data. For instance, if you have a drought code of 380, it does not mean you are in extreme fire danger. It means that the drought code only gets that high on 2% of the days between April 1 and November 1.

Index Low Moderate High Very High Extreme

FFMC

0.0 - 80.9

81.0 - 87.9

88.0 - 90.4

90.5 - 92.4

92.5+

DMC

0.0 - 12.9

13.0 - 27.9

28.0 - 41.9

42.0 - 62.9

63.0+

DC

0.0 - 79.9

80.0 - 209.9

210.0 - 273.9

274.0 - 359.9

360.0+

ISI

0.0 - 3.9

4.0 - 7.9

8.0 - 10.9

11.0 - 18.9

19.0+

BUI

0.0 - 18.9

19.0 - 33.9

34.0 - 53.9

54.0 - 76.9

77.0+

FWI

0.0 - 4.9

5.0 - 13.9

14.0 - 20.9

21.0 - 32.9

33.0+

Definitions

Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC)

This provides a relative indicator of the moisture in the fine fuels. Like the 1 hour fuel moisture, it reacts directly with the air temperature and relative humidity.

Duff Moisture Code (DMC)

This is an index of the moisture of the loosely compact organic layers at a depth of 2-4 inches.

Drought Code (DC)

This measures long term dryness in the fuels. It is a longer term index than the NFDRS 1000 fuel moisture. It doesn't reflect the probability of fire occurrence by itself, but can be useful in predicting the level of mop up needed and the consumption of large fuels. It should be looked at in relation to peat fire starts.

Initial Spread Index (ISI)

This is based on the FFMC and the wind speed. It provides a relative numerical rating of the expected rate of spread. This is similar to the NFDRS Spread Component.

Buildup Index (BUI)

This index is based on the DC and the DMC. It provides a relative indication of the amount of fuel available for combustion. This is somewhat similar to the NFDRS Energy Release Component. It doesn't predict what a given day might be like, but does relate well to the dryness of the fuels.

Fire Weather Index (FWI)

This combines the BUI and the ISI to give a relative numerical rating of fire intensity. It can be compared to the NFDRS Burning Index.