Observed Canadian fire danger indexes

Updated 13:00 2015-08-29

Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Agassiz 74 78 0.0 8 84.6 22.1 196.6 3.8 34.5 8.6
Badoura 76 68 0.0 5 86.8 20.6 212.6 4.1 33.1 8.9
Baudette 71 84 0.0 6 77.9 12.3 167.0 1.5 20.7 2.2
Bemidji 74 72 0.0 4 85.9 22.8 237.5 3.3 36.8 7.9
Bigstone 75 74 0.0 8 84.9 22.4 138.9 4.0 32.0 8.5
Brainerd 73 66 0.0 7 86.8 19.6 289.2 4.7 33.5 10.1
Camp Ripley/Little Falls 75 60 0.0 8 87.9 23.1 200.5 6.1 35.8 12.9
Carlos Avery 73 68 0.0 5 86.4 16.4 98.7 3.8 23.2 6.8
Cass Lake 75 67 0.0 6 85.9 23.8 276.6 3.9 39.2 9.4
Cutfoot 74 66 0.0 3 85.1 14.6 253.2 2.7 25.5 5.2
Detroit Lakes 78 66 0.0 10 86.8 20.4 300.5 6.1 34.8 12.8
Effie 72 73 0.0 5 85.2 13.1 291.9 3.3 23.6 5.9
Ely 69 80 0.73 6 42.4 4.8 195.8 0.1 9.1 0.1
Fernberg 70 84 1.93 3 31.4 4.6 137.6 0.0 8.5 0.0
Grand Portage 72 77 1.0 4 42.7 5.3 149.2 0.1 9.7 0.0
Hibbing 70 71 0.0 5 85.2 14.5 305.0 3.3 26.0 6.3
Hill City 73 69 0.0 4 85.8 12.4 161.5 3.3 20.8 5.5
Isabella 69 81 0.61 2 36.4 5.1 187.3 0.0 9.6 0.0
Itasca 76 69 0.0 5 86.5 20.0 193.6 3.9 31.8 8.3
Kelliher 73 76 0.0 3 85.0 15.5 291.2 2.7 27.3 5.3
Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Kittson 70 90 0.01 7 81.1 20.0 131.2 2.3 28.9 4.7
Litchfield 71 72 0.0 9 85.5 21.7 171.5 4.7 33.0 9.9
Littlefork 71 81 0.0 6 83.0 10.7 124.4 2.6 17.6 3.9
Meander USFS 69 80 1.39 3 35.1 4.8 54.5 0.0 7.8 0.0
MN Valley 66 84 0.0 4 77.4 18.1 199.7 1.2 29.5 2.3
Moose Lake 73 63 0.0 6 86.5 20.1 176.5 4.3 31.3 8.9
Mora 73 66 0.0 7 86.7 19.3 134.7 4.7 28.4 9.2
Orr 68 80 0.0 5 83.5 11.1 227.2 2.6 19.7 4.1
Redstn 73 68 0.0 7 83.9 18.3 75.4 3.2 22.8 5.7
Rice Lake 72 67 0.0 5 86.0 16.4 45.5 3.7 17.2 5.4
Roseau 69 91 0.01 8 80.4 17.7 145.1 2.3 27.1 4.5
Saginaw 70 67 0.0 4 84.9 15.3 222.4 2.9 26.1 5.6
Seagull Lake 71 75 0.89 6 47.0 5.6 169.7 0.2 10.3 0.1
Sherburne 74 64 0.0 6 87.3 19.3 61.6 4.8 21.7 7.9
Skibo 69 76 0.76 3 40.8 4.5 190.4 0.1 8.6 0.0
St. Croix 75 62 0.0 4 86.3 17.1 46.8 3.5 17.9 5.3
Superior #2 70 81 0.77 3 37.2 4.5 78.7 0.0 7.8 0.0
Voyageurs/Kabnam 75 72 0.02 2 82.1 8.3 164.4 1.7 14.8 1.9

Interpretation

The following chart is a statewide generalized fire danger rating chart for the Canadian Fire Weather Index. It is based on a five class danger rating system, i.e., low, moderate, high, very high , and extreme. The distribution is based on weather records from 1985 - 1998. Low days occurred 45% to 50% of the time, moderate - 30 %, high days - 12% to 15%, very high days occurred 7%-8% of the time, and extreme days were 2%-3%. This is not meant to be used as a staffing guide . Each area needs to look at its own weather data coupled with its fire occurrence data. For instance, if you have a drought code of 380, it does not mean you are in extreme fire danger. It means that the drought code only gets that high on 2% of the days between April 1 and November 1.

Index Low Moderate High Very High Extreme

FFMC

0.0 - 80.9

81.0 - 87.9

88.0 - 90.4

90.5 - 92.4

92.5+

DMC

0.0 - 12.9

13.0 - 27.9

28.0 - 41.9

42.0 - 62.9

63.0+

DC

0.0 - 79.9

80.0 - 209.9

210.0 - 273.9

274.0 - 359.9

360.0+

ISI

0.0 - 3.9

4.0 - 7.9

8.0 - 10.9

11.0 - 18.9

19.0+

BUI

0.0 - 18.9

19.0 - 33.9

34.0 - 53.9

54.0 - 76.9

77.0+

FWI

0.0 - 4.9

5.0 - 13.9

14.0 - 20.9

21.0 - 32.9

33.0+

Definitions

Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC)

This provides a relative indicator of the moisture in the fine fuels. Like the 1 hour fuel moisture, it reacts directly with the air temperature and relative humidity.

Duff Moisture Code (DMC)

This is an index of the moisture of the loosely compact organic layers at a depth of 2-4 inches.

Drought Code (DC)

This measures long term dryness in the fuels. It is a longer term index than the NFDRS 1000 fuel moisture. It doesn't reflect the probability of fire occurrence by itself, but can be useful in predicting the level of mop up needed and the consumption of large fuels. It should be looked at in relation to peat fire starts.

Initial Spread Index (ISI)

This is based on the FFMC and the wind speed. It provides a relative numerical rating of the expected rate of spread. This is similar to the NFDRS Spread Component.

Buildup Index (BUI)

This index is based on the DC and the DMC. It provides a relative indication of the amount of fuel available for combustion. This is somewhat similar to the NFDRS Energy Release Component. It doesn't predict what a given day might be like, but does relate well to the dryness of the fuels.

Fire Weather Index (FWI)

This combines the BUI and the ISI to give a relative numerical rating of fire intensity. It can be compared to the NFDRS Burning Index.