Observed Canadian fire danger indexes

Updated 13:00 2014-04-23

Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Agassiz 53 32 0.0 11 88.2 15.7 35.5 8.0 15.7 10.5
Badoura 51 37 0.0 9 88.1 15.2 27.1 6.8 15.0 8.8
Baudette 57 26 0.0 10 89.9 13.5 32.3 9.5 13.5 11.1
Bemidji 50 34 0.0 16 88.5 23.6 62.1 12.7 24.2 18.5
Bigstone 44 79 0.23 16 50.2 20.0 224.0 0.6 32.7 0.8
Brainerd 51 33 0.0 18 89.0 17.1 27.1 15.9 16.9 18.4
Camp Ripley/Little Falls 43 65 0.01 14 85.5 16.8 45.9 7.1 17.5 9.9
Carlos Avery 48 42 0.0 7 89.1 19.1 47.1 6.7 19.1 9.9
Cass Lake 50 34 0.0 14 88.5 22.2 61.2 10.8 23.3 16.0
Cutfoot 54 28 0.0 7 89.7 16.4 36.4 7.2 16.4 9.8
Detroit Lakes 41 88 0.05 0
Effie 53 30 0.0 9 89.2 9.9 20.8 7.9 9.8 8.2
Ely 52 28 0.0 11
Fernberg 54 27 0.0 7
Grand Portage 49 35 0.0 8
Hibbing 52 31 0.0 11 88.8 9.5 20.6 8.7 9.5 8.8
Hill City 53 33 0.0 5 88.8 15.3 38.1 5.4 15.3 7.3
Isabella 47 33 0.0 7
Itasca 50 37 0.0 11 88.0 17.7 38.1 7.8 17.6 10.8
Kelliher 54 27 0.0 13 89.9 17.8 36.1 12.2 17.7 15.4
Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Litchfield 40 91 0.31 17 34.0 7.7 76.2 0.0 12.3 0.0
Littlefork 55 27 0.0 11 89.8 10.2 21.0 10.1 10.1 10.3
Meander USFS 54 27 0.0 6 88.9 9.9 20.8 5.9 9.8 6.3
MN Valley 40 92 0.08 9 59.5 10.5 31.7 0.8 11.5 0.5
Moose Lake 52 31 0.0 7 89.0 9.7 20.7 6.5 9.7 6.9
Mora 49 36 0.0 12 88.6 15.7 37.4 9.3 15.7 11.8
Orr 55 27 0.0 12 89.8 10.1 20.9 11.1 10.0 11.0
Redstn 49 57 0.09 13 73.0 30.2 278.4 2.0 47.5 5.8
Rice Lake 51 36 0.0 9 88.7 16.6 32.3 7.4 16.5 10.1
Roseau 56 31 0.0 20 88.9 13.2 31.9 18.7 13.2 18.6
Saginaw 51 33 0.0 10
Seagull Lake 55 24 0.0 8 89.7 12.1 115.4 7.9 19.1 11.4
Sherburne 46 50 0.0 13 87.5 20.5 78.9 8.6 24.8 14.0
St. Croix 51 31 0.0 9 89.2 13.1 20.9 7.9 12.9 9.4
Voyageurs/Kabnam 54 28 0.0 6 89.1 9.8 20.9 6.2 9.7 6.5

Interpretation

The following chart is a statewide generalized fire danger rating chart for the Canadian Fire Weather Index. It is based on a five class danger rating system, i.e., low, moderate, high, very high , and extreme. The distribution is based on weather records from 1985 - 1998. Low days occurred 45% to 50% of the time, moderate - 30 %, high days - 12% to 15%, very high days occurred 7%-8% of the time, and extreme days were 2%-3%. This is not meant to be used as a staffing guide . Each area needs to look at its own weather data coupled with its fire occurrence data. For instance, if you have a drought code of 380, it does not mean you are in extreme fire danger. It means that the drought code only gets that high on 2% of the days between April 1 and November 1.

Index Low Moderate High Very High Extreme

FFMC

0.0 - 80.9

81.0 - 87.9

88.0 - 90.4

90.5 - 92.4

92.5+

DMC

0.0 - 12.9

13.0 - 27.9

28.0 - 41.9

42.0 - 62.9

63.0+

DC

0.0 - 79.9

80.0 - 209.9

210.0 - 273.9

274.0 - 359.9

360.0+

ISI

0.0 - 3.9

4.0 - 7.9

8.0 - 10.9

11.0 - 18.9

19.0+

BUI

0.0 - 18.9

19.0 - 33.9

34.0 - 53.9

54.0 - 76.9

77.0+

FWI

0.0 - 4.9

5.0 - 13.9

14.0 - 20.9

21.0 - 32.9

33.0+

Definitions

Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC)

This provides a relative indicator of the moisture in the fine fuels. Like the 1 hour fuel moisture, it reacts directly with the air temperature and relative humidity.

Duff Moisture Code (DMC)

This is an index of the moisture of the loosely compact organic layers at a depth of 2-4 inches.

Drought Code (DC)

This measures long term dryness in the fuels. It is a longer term index than the NFDRS 1000 fuel moisture. It doesn't reflect the probability of fire occurrence by itself, but can be useful in predicting the level of mop up needed and the consumption of large fuels. It should be looked at in relation to peat fire starts.

Initial Spread Index (ISI)

This is based on the FFMC and the wind speed. It provides a relative numerical rating of the expected rate of spread. This is similar to the NFDRS Spread Component.

Buildup Index (BUI)

This index is based on the DC and the DMC. It provides a relative indication of the amount of fuel available for combustion. This is somewhat similar to the NFDRS Energy Release Component. It doesn't predict what a given day might be like, but does relate well to the dryness of the fuels.

Fire Weather Index (FWI)

This combines the BUI and the ISI to give a relative numerical rating of fire intensity. It can be compared to the NFDRS Burning Index.