Observed Canadian fire danger indexes

Updated 12:00 2014-11-21

Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Agassiz 28 69 0.0 17 81.0 16.7 309.6 5.1 29.4 9.9
Badoura 28 61 0.0 12 82.0 21.3 401.5 3.8 37.6 8.9
Baudette 28 60 0.0 12 81.4 3.6 174.6 3.5 6.8 3.0
Bemidji 28 57 0.0 10 81.9 14.3 295.8 3.2 25.5 6.0
Bigstone 31 65 0.0 14 81.6 21.0 276.6 4.3 35.3 9.5
Brainerd 26 60 0.0 13 82.2 5.6 160.1 4.2 10.3 4.6
Camp Ripley/Little Falls 27 61 0.0 18 82.2 5.5 159.0 6.3 10.1 6.8
Carlos Avery 25 58 0.0 12 82.6 29.8 269.5 4.1 46.7 10.8
Cass Lake 28 58 0.0 8 82.0 13.3 382.3 2.7 24.5 5.1
Cutfoot 28 58 0.01 7 81.4 4.9 332.1 2.3 9.5 2.1
Detroit Lakes 28 66 0.0 19 81.0 13.9 359.4 5.9 25.3 10.4
Effie 27 60 0.0 16 81.5 8.2 308.0 4.9 15.4 6.8
Ely 25 59 0.0 15 81.3 8.7 289.9 4.4 16.2 6.3
Fernberg 23 66 0.0 12 80.5 5.8 258.5 3.2 11.0 3.5
Grand Portage 22 67 0.0 10 82.2 9.0 206.7 3.3 16.2 4.7
Hibbing 26 60 0.0 15 81.6 4.3 261.5 4.6 8.3 4.5
Hill City 29 56 0.0 10 82.5 6.3 251.8 3.4 11.9 4.0
Isabella 21 66 0.0 10 80.5 3.0 189.7 2.7 5.8 1.8
Itasca 28 62 0.0 10 81.7 25.2 401.3 3.1 43.6 8.2
Kelliher 27 59 0.0 10 81.6 6.4 230.3 3.0 12.0 3.6
Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Kittson 24 70 0.0 16 80.7 17.6 324.5 4.5 31.0 9.3
Litchfield 26 67 0.0 18 81.7 30.3 307.5 5.9 48.6 14.9
Littlefork 27 57 0.0 12 82.1 4.7 275.8 3.8 9.0 3.9
Meander USFS 25 58 0.0 8 80.5 2.3 312.0 2.3 4.5 0.9
MN Valley 28 58 0.0 13 82.2 42.4 244.5 4.2 59.2 12.7
Moose Lake 23 57 0.0 11 82.5 8.0 205.0 3.7 14.6 5.0
Mora 24 58 0.0 14 82.5 16.3 135.8 4.7 25.1 8.6
Orr 27 57 0.0 10 81.6 6.6 349.2 3.1 12.6 3.7
Redstn 31 71 0.0 15 78.5 30.2 387.0 3.3 50.6 9.6
Rice Lake 27 56 0.0 12 82.5 2.8 121.7 4.0 5.3 3.0
Roseau 26 71 0.0 16 80.4 12.6 341.3 4.4 23.1 7.6
Saginaw 24 58 0.0 10 81.7 3.6 172.4 3.1 6.8 2.5
Seagull Lake 22 55 0.0 12 81.8 5.9 202.9 3.7 11.0 4.2
Sherburne 28 57 0.0 12 82.7 27.8 243.3 4.1 43.2 10.5
St. Croix 24 56 0.0 8 83.7 14.4 95.5 3.4 20.9 5.7
Voyageurs/Kabnam 27 54 0.01 9 81.0 0.9 224.0 2.6 1.8 0.8

Interpretation

The following chart is a statewide generalized fire danger rating chart for the Canadian Fire Weather Index. It is based on a five class danger rating system, i.e., low, moderate, high, very high , and extreme. The distribution is based on weather records from 1985 - 1998. Low days occurred 45% to 50% of the time, moderate - 30 %, high days - 12% to 15%, very high days occurred 7%-8% of the time, and extreme days were 2%-3%. This is not meant to be used as a staffing guide . Each area needs to look at its own weather data coupled with its fire occurrence data. For instance, if you have a drought code of 380, it does not mean you are in extreme fire danger. It means that the drought code only gets that high on 2% of the days between April 1 and November 1.

Index Low Moderate High Very High Extreme

FFMC

0.0 - 80.9

81.0 - 87.9

88.0 - 90.4

90.5 - 92.4

92.5+

DMC

0.0 - 12.9

13.0 - 27.9

28.0 - 41.9

42.0 - 62.9

63.0+

DC

0.0 - 79.9

80.0 - 209.9

210.0 - 273.9

274.0 - 359.9

360.0+

ISI

0.0 - 3.9

4.0 - 7.9

8.0 - 10.9

11.0 - 18.9

19.0+

BUI

0.0 - 18.9

19.0 - 33.9

34.0 - 53.9

54.0 - 76.9

77.0+

FWI

0.0 - 4.9

5.0 - 13.9

14.0 - 20.9

21.0 - 32.9

33.0+

Definitions

Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC)

This provides a relative indicator of the moisture in the fine fuels. Like the 1 hour fuel moisture, it reacts directly with the air temperature and relative humidity.

Duff Moisture Code (DMC)

This is an index of the moisture of the loosely compact organic layers at a depth of 2-4 inches.

Drought Code (DC)

This measures long term dryness in the fuels. It is a longer term index than the NFDRS 1000 fuel moisture. It doesn't reflect the probability of fire occurrence by itself, but can be useful in predicting the level of mop up needed and the consumption of large fuels. It should be looked at in relation to peat fire starts.

Initial Spread Index (ISI)

This is based on the FFMC and the wind speed. It provides a relative numerical rating of the expected rate of spread. This is similar to the NFDRS Spread Component.

Buildup Index (BUI)

This index is based on the DC and the DMC. It provides a relative indication of the amount of fuel available for combustion. This is somewhat similar to the NFDRS Energy Release Component. It doesn't predict what a given day might be like, but does relate well to the dryness of the fuels.

Fire Weather Index (FWI)

This combines the BUI and the ISI to give a relative numerical rating of fire intensity. It can be compared to the NFDRS Burning Index.