Buried artesian aquifers

Buried artesian aquifers are composed of glacially deposited sands and gravels, over which a confining layer of clay or clay till was deposited. Their areal extent and hydraulic connections beneath the ground surface are often unknown.

When an aquifer is separated from the ground surface and atmosphere by a material of low permeability, the aquifer is confined. The water in a confined aquifer is under pressure; therefore, when a well is installed in a confined aquifer, the water level in the well casing rises above the top of the aquifer.