Gypsy Moths in the U.S.
How did it get here?
E.L. Trouvelot, who was interested in breeding a better silk worm, first brought the gypsy moth from France to Massachusetts in 1869. Some moths escaped to his neighborhood and quickly became established. Since their introduction, gypsy moths have spread north, south, and west, eating their way from Maine to North Carolina and into central Wisconsin. Despite state and local control efforts, the infestation continues to spread south and west and threatens to move into Minnesota.
There are three broad stages of population development for a non-native invasive species such as the gypsy moth.
- Pre- or uninfested stage when the pest is rarely found
- Generally infested stage once the pest has become permanently established in an area
- Transition stage in between, when the pest becomes established and populations begin to build.
When gypsy moths become permanently established within a county, the county is quarantined. Quarantines do not ban the movement of goods from one area to another, but they do regulate how items can be moved. Within a quarantined area, commercial export facilities will need a compliance agreement with USDA-APHIS in order to legally ship their products. At this time (June 2006) there are no quarantines in Minnesota.
Questions about Minnesota quarantines? Contact the Minnesota Department of Agriculture's by contacting "Arrest the Pest" at email@example.com or 888-545-6684.
What programs are there to help?
The management strategy varies for each population stage, as does the financial support available for state programs and the lead agency within the state responsible for pest management.
|Population characteristics||Moths are not present or are rare. Isolated infestations may occur as a result of accidental introductions.||Moths are present but difficult to find. Low density populations occur in distinct islands of infestation that are not yet wide spread.||Moths are present in increasing large numbers and infestations are more or less contiguous through out the area.|
|Primary management strategy||Detect & eradicate small isolated infestation in front of general infestation.||Monitor pest numbers & treat population peaks to slow the spread of infestation||Monitor forest damage & treat high value forest lands where needed to limit potential losses|
|Federal support||USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service provides direct technical and financial assistance.||USDA Forest Service research provides technical support. Financial assistance is provided the National Slow-the-Spread (STS) Foundation.||USDA Forest Services, State and Private Forestry provides technical and financial assistance|
|Survey methods||"Delta" traps (small triangular cardboard tents) baited to attract male moths.||"Milk-carton" traps (cardboard boxes shaped like milk cartons) baited to attract male moths.||Egg mass surveys and aerial surveys to map forest damage.|
|Most common treatments||Btk or Gypchk||Disrupt II or Btk||Btk|
|Lead state agency||Minnesota Department of Agriculture||Minnesota Department of Agriculture||Minnesota Department of Natural Resources|