Mussel Resources


Minnesota Conservation Volunteer/Young Naturalist article "Mussel Bound in Minnesota" (July–August 2000). This article covers many different topics such as mussel names, mussel movement, what mussels eat, how long mussels live and much more.

Statewide Mussel Survey

Rare Species Guide

Illinois Natural History Survey This link leads to an external site.

Mollusc information website This link leads to an external site.

American Malacological Union This link leads to an external site.

Minnesota Historical Society This link leads to an external site.

Mollusc resource page for students and teachers This link leads to an external site.

Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society This link leads to an external site.

Freshwater Mussels of the Upper Mississippi River System This link leads to an external site.

Mollusk Bibliography Database This link leads to an external site.


Field Guide to the Freshwater Mussels of Minnesota. A tool for anyone interested in identifying and learning about Minnesota freshwater mussels. Contains photographs, shell descriptions, habitat associations, and distribution maps. Also contains general information about mussels, their importance in the ecosystem, threats to their survival, collection methods and collection regulations.
Download order form (222 KB) This is a PDF file. You will need Adobe Acrobat Reader to download it.
Purchase from Minnesota's Bookstore This link leads to an external site.
Picture of the cover for the Field Guide

Freshwater Mussels of the Minnesota (poster) featuring Minnesota mussels. Available in print from the DNR.
Request publication


Mussel survey

Barnhart, M.C., W.R. Haag, and W.N. Roston. 2008. Adaptations to host and larval parasitism in Unionoida. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27:370-394.


Cummings, K. S., and C. A. Mayer. 1992. Field guide to freshwater mussels of the Midwest. Illinois Natural History Survey. Champaign, Ill. 194 pp.


Fuller, S. L. H. 1978. Freshwater mussels of the Upper Mississippi River: Observations at selected sites within the 9-foot channel navigation project on behalf of the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers. Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia, PA.


Gillis, P. L., and G. L. Mackie. 1994 Impact of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, on populations of Unionidae (Bivalvia) in lake St. Clair. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:1260-1271.


Graf, D.L. 1997. Distribution of unionoid (Bivalvia) faunas in Minnesota, USA. Nautilus 110:45-54.


McMahon, R. F. 1991. Mollusca: Bivalvia. In Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates. J. J. Thorpe and A. C. Covich, eds. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.


Parmalee, P. W., and A. E. Bogan. 1998. The freshwater mussels of Tennessee. The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. 328 pp.


Ricciardi, A., R. J. Neves, and J. B. Rasmussen. 1998. Impending extinctions of North American Freshwater mussels (Unionoida) following the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. Journal of Animal Ecology 67:613-619.


Sietman, B.E. 2003. Field guide to the freshwater mussels of Minnesota. State of Minnesota, Department of Natural Resources 143 pp.


Stansbery, D. J. 1970. Eastern freshwater mollusks (I); the Mississippi and St. Lawrence River systems. Malacologia 10:9-22.


Strayer, D.L., J.A. Downing, W.R. Haag, T.L. King, J.B. Layzer, T.J. Newton, and S.J. Nichols. 2004. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals. BioScience 54:429-439.


Vaughn, C.C., S.J. Nichols, and D.E. Spooner. 2008. Community foodweb ecology of freshwater mussels. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27:409-423.


Watters, G. T., M. A. Hoggarth, and D. H. Stansbery. 2009. The freshwater mussels of Ohio. The Ohio State University Press, Columbus. 421 p.


Williams, J.D., A.E. Bogan, and J.T. Garner. 2008. Freshwater mussels of Alabama & the Mobile Basin in Georgia, Mississippi & Tennessee. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa xv + 908 p.


Williams, J. D., M. L. Warren, Jr., K. S. Cummings, J. L. Harris, and R. J. Neves. 1993. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18:6-22.