The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources has been conducting laboratory and field rock weathering research since the mid-1970s. This research weathering tests of rocks and tailings associated with nonferrous deposits in Minnesota and methods of mitigation applicable to nonferrous and ferrous mine wastes. Research projects are selected cooperatively based on data needs to support the Lands and Minerals Division environmental review and mine permitting responsibilities. Research project results are reported on in two fiscal year (FY) cycles. Listed below are the research reports categorized by the fiscal years the projects were proposed. Research reports completed prior to fiscal year 2012 can be found on the Mineland Reclamation publication list below.
CER Project Reports
Provided below is information and links to recent CER projects.
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Fiscal Years 2016-2017
- Sulfide Oxidation Report
Project Summary: This study was designed to evaluate a microscopy method for determining the reaction rate of sulfide oxidation. The method combined reflected light petrography and the particle lifetime model for mineral reactions to calculate the apparent reaction rate of sulfide minerals. Calculated reaction rates were compared to those defined by mineral reaction rate laws from scientific literature. The single pyrrhotite rate calculation was in good agreement with the pyrrhotite rate law. The chalcopyrite and cubanite rate calculations were less than the pyrite and pyrrhotite rate laws, consistent with qualitative observations from multiple published references. For the experimental conditions of the materials examined in this study, no rate law data exists for chalcopyrite and cubanite, so direct mineral type comparisons could not be made.
Project Application: This study begins to develop a link between fundamental mineral reaction theory and laboratory kinetic tests. Determining the reaction rate of sulfides will improve our understanding of how kinetic test data can be used for short and long term water quality prediction models for mining projects. Extension of this study to natural settings will provide a platform for making direct comparisons for how laboratory and field conditions variably affect mineral reaction rates.
- Additional Research Projects
Novel microbial assemblages dominate weathered sulfide-bearing rock from copper-nickel deposits in the Duluth Complex, Minnesota, USA. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Accepted manuscript posted online 9 June 2017, DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00909-17.
Long-term durability of geomembrane material and seams. Geosynthetics Magazine, April 1, 2017.
Fiscal Years 2014-2015
- Duluth Complex Leach Pile
Project Summary: This report evaluates a 38 year record of leachate water quality monitoring for an approximately 800 tonne Duluth Complex Leach Pile (DCLP) with a sulfur concentration of 0.91 wt%. Over this 38 year period, the DCLP leachate sulfate, copper and nickel concentrations have decreased by about a factor of 20, 10, and 40, respectively. The DCLP leachate sulfate data was used to construct an empirical model that numerically describes the rate of sulfur removal. A theoretical sulfur removal model was developed using the shrinking particle theory and a surface area normalized pyrrhotite oxidation rate. The theoretical model incorporated particle size specific sulfur concentrations and exposed sulfide surface area percentage measurements of an unweathered sample from the DCLP. The empirical and theoretical model rates of sulfur removal were within about a factor of two for the entire 38 year period.
Project Application: This study has presented how robust rock characterization data can be applied to a simple theoretical model to predict the rate of sulfur removal from a naturally weathering rock pile. This modeling approach could be used for assessing the magnitude of rock reactivity over long timescales for historic, current, and future mine wastes. The simplified model presented in this study may be expanded on and modified for application to different rock types and different hydrogeochemical conditions.
- Virginia Formation Humidity Cell Experiment
Project Summary: Five samples of Virginia Formation (VF) rock from Northshore Mining Company drill core were characterized (chemical composition, mineral content) and subjected to humidity cell testing for 11 years. These samples ranged from 0.22 ≤ %S ≤ 0.81 and minimum leachate pH was in the range of 4.0 to 6.4. Release rates for sulfate, metals (copper, cobalt) and major cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium) tended to increase with increasing sulfur content. Solid phase and leachate composition data from the DNR VF samples was compared to VF samples from Northshore Mining and PolyMet Mining. In general, both static and kinetics test results differed considerably between these sample sets. Leachate pH was the highest for the PolyMet samples (min pH ~ 6.7) and the lowest for the Northshore samples (min pH ~ 3.5). Sulfate release from the Northshore samples, on average, were 35% higher than the DNR samples, and as much as 5 times higher than the PolyMet samples. Significant differences in sulfate and cation release rates were also observed when compared to DNR's Duluth Complex waste rock experiment. Leachate pH from the VF samples were typically at least 1 pH unit lower than the DCWR samples and sulfate release rates were on average 2.5 times higher.
Project Application: The results provided scientific and technical information necessary to address mine waste characterization questions inherent to environmental review and permitting of both ferrous and nonferrous metal mines. Results from this experiment compared to other available data sets revealed considerable differences in both static and kinetic test results among samples from within the Virginia Formation. These comparisons have illustrated differences in rock reactivity for rocks of similar sulfur content from the same rock formation, demonstrating the importance of a thorough waste rock characterization program for all rock types that may be disturbed during mineral resource development of the Duluth Complex and Virginia Formation.
- Ely Greenstone Laboratory and Field Weathering Tests
Project Summary: Rock samples from the Ely Greenstone were tested for 12 years in the laboratory (14 samples) and field (4 samples) to evaluate the relationship between rock sulfur concentration and waste rock leachate pH and sulfate release rates. The laboratory tests indicated 1) greenstone samples with a sulfur concentration greater than about 0.1 wt% could produce a leachate pH less than 6, a common water quality standard, and 2) sulfate release rates increase systematically with increasing rock sulfur concentration. Leachate pH from a field rock pile with a 0.67 wt% sulfur concentration decreased to less than 6 after nine years. Rock piles with sulfur concentrations of 0.02, 0.2 and 0.39 wt% produced a leachate pH greater than 6, although pH values from the 0.2 and 0.39 wt% sulfur piles are declining. Field rock pile sulfate release rates increased with increasing rock sulfur content. Comparison of the laboratory and field sulfate release rates indicated the laboratory rates were approximately seven times greater than the field rates.
Project Application: The Ely Greenstone experiment provided a foundation for determining the potential for the development of acidic leachate from rock that could be mined from the Ely Greenstone. Data from this study can be used to 1) guide waste characterization studies (required by MN Rules Ch. 6132.1000) for mining in the Ely Greenstone, 2) inform extrapolation from laboratory tests to operation conditions as is required for environmental review and permitting, and 3) provide a benchmark data set for comparison to test results submitted during environmental review and mine permitting.
- Subaqueous Disposal of Sulfide Bearing Mine Waste Batch Screening Tests
Project Summary: Placing mine wastes containing sulfide minerals under water (subaqueous disposal) might provide a method of secure, permanent disposal by reducing the rate of sulfide mineral oxidation and the consequent solute release. For sulfide-bearing mine wastes from Minnesota, experiments on thin rock layers were conducted for four to six years to examine the mitigative potential of 1) subaqueous disposal; 2) subaqueous disposal augmented by addition of alkalinity to the water cover; and 3) incorporation of an oxygen consuming compost layer at the water/rock interface of mine waste disposed under water. Under subaerial (simulating disposal on the land’s surface) conditions, rates of sulfide mineral oxidation increased by a factor of five after 120 weeks of reaction. Associated with this increase, pH decreased from the upper threes to 2.5 and trace metals concentrations increased by as much as a factor of 30. Sulfide oxidation rates for the thin rock layers under all subaqueous disposal conditions were initially similar to the early subaerial rates but declined after two to six years of reaction. The minimum pH for subaqueous disposal with no modification was 3.3. Small additions of alkalinity maintained pH in the circumneutral range, but yielded sulfide mineral oxidation rates similar to subaqueous disposal without modification. Maximum release rates for copper, nickel, cobalt, and zinc from the subaerial rock were 10 to 100 times those from the subaqueous rock.
Project Application:This survey experiment indicated subaqueous disposal presents a potentially attractive option for limiting acid and trace metal release from sulfide-bearing mine wastes in Minnesota. It further indicated that this method of disposal requires consideration of site specific conditions because it can yield acidic water in the absence of some addition of alkalinity, perhaps from surrounding rock or groundwater. The results indicated more detailed experimentation examining subaqueous disposal was warranted.
- Subaqueous Disposal of Sulfide Bearing Mine Waste Column Tests
Project Summary: Preliminary experiments indicated that placing mine wastes containing sulfide minerals under water (subaqueous disposal) might provide a method of secure, permanent disposal by reducing the rate of sulfide mineral oxidation and the consequent solute release. Column experiments were conducted for six years to evaluate subaqueous disposal without augmentation and subaqueous disposal with barriers of taconite tailings and mixtures of tailings and yard waste compost and tailings and limestone at the water-rock interface. The pH from the subaerial controls decreased below 6 after 134 weeks of reaction. With the exception of surface water from the subaqueous controls (pH in upper sixes), pH from all subaqueous columns ranged from 7 to 8. Removal of soluble components present on the rock at the beginning of the experiment (analogous to products accumulated on waste rock prior to disposal under water) required three pore volumes of flow. Subsequently, sulfate release rates decreased with increasing depth of tailings barrier, irrespective of the presence of compost or limestone. Rates with a 10 cm barrier depth were about 15% of those without a barrier layer.
Project Application:The results support placing mine wastes under water as a method of secure, permanent disposal by reducing the rate of sulfide mineral oxidation and the consequent solute release. They further indicate that a layer of fine-grained material above the rock will further reduce oxidation rates. PolyMet has proposed disposal of their higher sulfur waste rock under water.
Fiscal Years 2012-2013
- Duluth Complex Waste Rock Research Summary
Project Summary: The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources has studied Duluth Complex mine waste drainage quality and mitigation of problematic drainage since the mid-1970s. A report was written to summarize research conducted on waste characterization techniques, laboratory and field dissolution of Duluth Complex rock and tailings, and mitigation of problematic mine waste drainage. Reports issued on the various projects were identified for those seeking additional detail.
Project Application: This report is a directory for a large body of information that provides a technical foundation for developing and evaluating submittals required for environmental review and permitting of proposed nonferrous mining of Duluth Complex rock (Minnesota Rules Ch. 6132.000).
- Duluth Complex Waste Rock Experiment
Project Summary: Coarse and fine fractions of Duluth Complex waste rock from the Partridge River Intrusion (PRI) were characterized (particle size distribution, chemistry, mineralogy) and subjected to laboratory dissolution testing for eight years (ongoing). Drainage pH values reflected the balance between rates of acid production by sulfide mineral oxidation and acid neutralization by silicate mineral dissolution and tended to decrease (become more acidic) with increasing sulfur content. Drainage pH was highest at the beginning of the experiment. Minimum values were reached within two years for the fine particles, but drainage pH from many of the coarse particle samples continued to decrease over the entire eight years. Minimum pH values for a specific sulfur content were not substantially different between the two size fractions. Minimum drainage pH values from both the fine PRI and South Kawishiwi Intrusion (SKI) rocks tested previously were near 6 for sulfur contents less than or equal to roughly 0.3 percent, but for higher sulfur contents PRI values were about a unit higher than SKI values of similar sulfur content. This indicated that the PRI rocks could neutralize acid more rapidly than the SKI rocks. More generally, the dependence of drainage pH on sulfur content exhibited similar trends for the two Duluth Complex intrusions, but the dependences differed quantitatively./p>
Project Application: These results are empirical benchmarks for drainage pH and solute release rates from Partridge River Intrusion rock that provide the scientific background for developing characterization requirements (Minnesota Rules Ch. 6132.1000) for proposals submitted for environmental review. The results indicate that, whereas dissolution of rock from different intrusions is dependent on sulfur content and dissolution time, the quantitative dependence on these factors varies between intrusions. This information will aid in determining testing requirements for environmental review of mining proposals (Minnesota Rules Ch. 6132.1000) and interpretation of results generated. The study results were applied during environmental review for the PolyMet project to evaluate data submitted and extrapolate laboratory waste rock dissolution data to field conditions.
- Duluth Complex Tailings Experiment
Project Summary: Laboratory dissolution tests were conducted on well-characterized Duluth Complex tailings (0.2 %S) for 10 years (ongoing) to examine 1) the long-term dissolution behavior of the tailings; 2) the influence of moisture content on reactions; and 3) the influence of tailings depth (1.7 vs 7.5 cm) on reactions. Drainage pH values decreased within the circumneutral range for 100 to more than 400 weeks, depending on reaction conditions. Sulfide oxidation in saturated (non-evaporating but not submerged) reactors was more rapid than that in unsaturated (evaporating) reactors and yielded slightly lower drainage pH values than those from the saturated reactors. These lower pH values (6.4 to 6.6) produced nickel concentrations in drainage from the saturated reactors that were roughly 25 times those in drainage from the unsaturated reactors. Sulfide mineral oxidation for deeper tailings beds was limited at depth by oxygen diffusion, but acid neutralization reactions were not. Consequently, the deeper beds yielded higher drainage pH values and lower trace metal concentrations than corresponding values from shallower beds.
Project Application: The results provided scientific and technical information necessary to address mine waste characterization questions inherent to environmental review and permitting of nonferrous metal mines (Minnesota Rules Ch. 6132.1000). More specifically, the 10 years of data are a scientific foundation that yields a benchmark describing dissolution of low-sulfur Duluth Complex tailings, a description that includes drainage pH and rates of solute release. Analysis of the data generated yielded quantification of the dependence of dissolution behavior on water content and tailings depth, factors that must be considered for predicting solute release from tailings during environmental review. Thus, the experimental results will help determine testing required for mine waste characterization during environmental review and permitting (Minnesota Rules Ch. 6132.000). The study results also provide information necessary to extrapolate laboratory test data to field conditions, and were used to evaluate data submitted during environmental review for the PolyMet project.
- Dunka Blast Hole Experiment
Project Summary: Twenty-five rock Dunka mine blast hole samples from the Duluth Complex and underlying Virginia Formation were characterized (physical, chemical, mineralogical) and subjected to laboratory dissolution testing for 24 years (ongoing). Drainage pH and solute release rates were a function of sulfur content and time of dissolution. Samples with S ≤ 0.22% (Group I) maintained drainage pH ≥ 6; samples with 0.4% ≤ S ≤ 0.92% (Group II) produced drainage pH ≥ 4, and samples 1.12% ≤ S ≤ 1.64% (Group III) produced minimum drainage pH values in the range of 3.2 to 3.5. As sulfur content increased, rates of sulfate and trace metal release increased as well. Based on drainage pH alone, disposal of waste rock in Group I would require no rigorous reclamation. In order to meet water quality standards, waste rock producing drainage pH values similar to Group III samples would require the most rigorous control measures of the samples tested. Drainage pH typically decreased for 300 to 400 weeks, but this trend was observed for as long as 800 weeks. Ultimately drainage pH increased and sulfate release rates decreased. At the end of the experiment, there was typically 50% of sulfide minerals left unoxidized. Rates of sulfide and silicate mineral dissolution were estimated based on observed release of sulfate and major cations.
Project Application: The intent of this testing was to generate data that would assist in the environmentally sound management of Duluth Complex waste rock generated during mining. To attain this objective the dependences of drainage quality on solid-phase composition of troctolitic/gabbroic Duluth Complex rocks and dissolution time were established. By establishing such relationships, solid-phase composition of these rocks would provide beneficial insight on their dissolution behavior in the field. Dissolution rates of major minerals present were also calculated to aid in extrapolation of results to operational scale and to other deposits within the Duluth Complex.
- Duluth Complex Particle Size Experiment
Project Summary: The particle size experiment was designed to 1) determine the variation of waste rock composition with particle size and 2) determine the dependence of leachate pH and solute release rates (e.g., sulfate) on particle size. The study included over 18 years of laboratory weathering data for six different particle size fractions of rock from the Duluth Complex. The study found 1) crushing of Duluth Complex rock resulted in enrichment of sulfide minerals in the finer particle size fractions (< 0.5 mm); 2) minimum leachate pH from the three finest particle fractions (<0.053 to 0.5 mm) was about 4 whereas the three largest particle size fractions (0.5-19 mm) had a minimum leachate pH between about 5 and 6; and 3) sulfate release rates from the finer particle fractions were up to about 100 times greater than the largest size fraction (6.35-19 mm). The relationship between particle size and sulfate release rate was expressed mathematically and used to accurately predict the leachate sulfate concentration from a large (~1,000 tonnes) sulfide-bearing Duluth Complex rock pile.
Project Application: The particle size experiment provides insight on the relationship between rock particle size and waste rock leachate quality and provided a method to extrapolate laboratory test results to operational scale predictions. Mining companies can implement this methodology in mine waste characterization studies to evaluate water quality impact predictions required for environmental impact statements and mine permits (required by MN Rules Ch. 6130.2100 and 6132.1000). Data from the experiment can also be used to inform strategies to mitigate waste rock leachate.
Prior to 2012
Please see the Reclamation Sections' list of publications for more information on the research we have done.