Heavy Rain and Severe Storms: July 21-22, 2014

Rainfall for the 24-hour period ending July 22, 2014
Rainfall for the 24-hour period ending July 22, 2014 Courtesy: National Weather Service

 

At the tail end of a hot and muggy day, a large line of severe thunderstorms raced eastward across central and northern Minnesota on July 21st. The storms moved into northeast Minnesota after midnight. High winds downed trees and power lines. Wind gusts were measured at 74mph just east of Floodwood in St. Louis County. There was damage at the Eveleth-Virginia Airport with one hangar and the plane that was inside was destroyed.

Trees were also blown down in parts of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. Hardest hit was a swath just south of Lake LaCroix. Seven campers were injured by the falling trees in two different groups.

One tornado was reported in Polk County near Eldred and a National Weather Service damage survey team is investigating.

In addition to the severe weather, heavy rains fell as well with the most rain falling in northwest Minnesota. Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge in Marshall County saw the most rain reported so far with 4.43 inches of rain in a span of about 12 hours. The southern half of Minnesota did not receive any rain at all from these storms.

Below are storm reports and public information statements and storm reports from the National Weather Service.


PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE GRAND FORKS ND
425 PM CDT TUE JUL 22 2014

...TORNADO DAMAGE CONFIRMED IN POLK COUNTY MINNESOTA...

AN NWS STORM DAMAGE SURVEY TEAM HAS CONFIRMED THAT AT LEAST ONE
TORNADO WAS INVOLVED IN THE STORM DAMAGES WHICH OCCURRED ACROSS
SOUTHWEST POLK COUNTY ON MONDAY EVENING...JULY 21ST.

THE TORNADO DAMAGE ORIGINATED IN RURAL ROOME TOWNSHIP...NEAR
ELDRED...AND CONTINUED TOWARDS CROOKSTON. THIS TORNADO WAS LIKELY
ENSHROUDED IN HEAVY RAIN AND DOWNBURST WINDS...MAKING TORNADO
IDENTIFICATION QUITE DIFFICULT...AND MASKING TORNADO DAMAGE WITHIN
THE MORE WIDESPREAD DOWNBURST WIND DAMAGES.

THE TORNADO DAMAGE SURVEY IS STILL UNDERWAY...AND MAY PROCEED INTO
SOUTHWEST RED LAKE COUNTY THROUGH THE LATE AFTERNOON. MORE DETAILS
WILL BE MADE AVAILABLE ONCE THE TEAM HAS COMPLETED THEIR WORK AND
HAS RETURNED TO THE OFFICE...LATER THIS EVENING.



PRELIMINARY LOCAL STORM REPORT...CORRECTED
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DULUTH MN
323 PM CDT TUE JUL 22 2014

..TIME...   ...EVENT...      ...CITY LOCATION...     ...LAT.LON...
..DATE...   ....MAG....      ..COUNTY LOCATION..ST.. ...SOURCE....
            ..REMARKS..

1137 PM     TSTM WND DMG     NISSWA                  46.50N 94.30W
07/21/2014                   CROW WING          MN   PUBLIC

            LOTS OF TREES BLOWN DOWN IN NISSWA. THE REPORT WAS
            GATHERED VIA SOCIAL MEDIA. THE TIME WAS ESTIMATED BASED
            ON RADAR.

1146 PM     TSTM WND DMG     2 SW INTERNATIONAL FALL 48.57N 93.44W
07/21/2014                   KOOCHICHING        MN   PUBLIC

            MORE THAN 200 TREES WERE BLOWN DOWN AT A COUNTRY CLUB.
            PARTS OF THE ROOF FROM THE OUTDOOR DECK BY THE CLUBHOUSE
            ENDED UP ON THE NUMBER 18 TEE. THE REPORT WAS GATHERED
            VIA SOCIAL MEDIA. THE TIME WAS ESTIMATED BASED ON RADAR.

1148 PM     TSTM WND DMG     W INTERNATIONAL FALLS   48.59N 93.41W
07/21/2014                   KOOCHICHING        MN   PUBLIC

            A CARPORT AND WOODSHED WERE BLOWN DOWN AND DESTROYED. THE
            REPORT WAS GATHERED VIA SOCIAL MEDIA. THE TIME WAS
            ESTIMATED BASED ON RADAR.

0101 AM     TSTM WND DMG     7 S EVELETH             47.36N 92.54W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   PUBLIC

            A 25 INCH DIAMATER TREE WAS BLOWN DOWN. THE REPORT WAS
            GATHERED VIA SOCIAL MEDIA. THE TIME WAS ESTIMATED BASED
            ON RADAR.

0103 AM     TSTM WND DMG     VIRGINIA                47.52N 92.51W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   PUBLIC

            A LARGE TREE WAS UPROOTED. THE REPORT WAS GATHERED VIA
            SOCIAL MEDIA. THE TIME WAS ESTIMATED BASED ON RADAR.

0107 AM     TSTM WND DMG     2 S ESKO                46.68N 92.36W
07/22/2014                   CARLTON            MN   PUBLIC

            A FEW TREES ABOUT 6 INCHES IN DIAMETER WERE BLOWN DOWN.
            THE REPORT WAS GATHERED VIA SOCIAL MEDIA. THE TIME WAS
            ESTIMATED BASED ON RADAR.

0118 AM     TSTM WND DMG     WEST DULUTH             46.74N 92.19W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   PUBLIC

            A LARGE TREE WAS BLOWN OVER AND FELL ONTO A FENCE. THE
            REPORT WAS GATHERED VIA SOCIAL MEDIA. THE TIME WAS BASED
            ON RADAR.

0121 AM     TSTM WND DMG     E SUPERIOR              46.70N 92.06W
07/22/2014                   DOUGLAS            WI   PUBLIC

            A LARGE TREE LIMB FELL ONTO A GARAGE. THE REPORT WAS
            GATHERED VIA SOCIAL MEDIA. THE TIME WAS ESTIMATED BASED
            ON RADAR.

0122 AM     TSTM WND DMG     CONGDON PARK            46.82N 92.06W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   PUBLIC

            A PINE TREE WAS BLOWN DOWN OVER THE ROAD NEAR THE
            INTERSECTION OF VERMILLION ROAD AND LAKEVIEW DRIVE IN
            DULUTH. THE REPORT WAS GATHERED VIA SOCIAL MEDIA. THE
            TIME WAS ESTIMATED BASED ON RADAR.

0134 AM     TSTM WND DMG     BABBITT                 47.65N 91.94W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   PUBLIC

            TREES WERE UPROOTED AND A LARGE SHED WAS DESTROYED.

0134 AM     TSTM WND DMG     BABBITT                 47.65N 91.94W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   LAW ENFORCEMENT

            TREES AND POWER LINES DOWN.

0137 AM     TSTM WND DMG     POPLAR                  46.58N 91.79W
07/22/2014                   DOUGLAS            WI   PUBLIC

            A LARGE TREE ABOUT 24 INCHES IN DIAMETER WAS BLOWN DOWN
            ONTO A FENCE. THE REPORT WAS GATHERED VIA SOCIAL MEDIA.
            THE TIME WAS ESTIMATED BASED ON RADAR.



PRELIMINARY LOCAL STORM REPORT...SUMMARY
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DULUTH MN
157 PM CDT TUE JUL 22 2014

..TIME...   ...EVENT...      ...CITY LOCATION...     ...LAT.LON...
..DATE...   ....MAG....      ..COUNTY LOCATION..ST.. ...SOURCE....
            ..REMARKS..

1108 PM     TSTM WND DMG     10 S BIRCHDALE          48.48N 94.08W
07/21/2014                   KOOCHICHING        MN   PUBLIC

            2 TREES DOWN ACROSS COUNTY ROAD 86.

1126 PM     TSTM WND DMG     1 NNW FEDERAL DAM       47.25N 94.22W
07/21/2014                   CASS               MN   CO-OP OBSERVER

            NUMEROUS TREES UPROOTED WITH SOME SHEARED OFF ABOVE THE
            GROUND. POWER STILL OUT AS OF 947 AM.

1140 PM     TSTM WND DMG     LITTLEFORK              48.40N 93.56W
07/21/2014                   KOOCHICHING        MN   PUBLIC

            SEVERAL TREES DOWN. TIME ESTIMATED BY RADAR.

1145 PM     HAIL             3 N BRAINERD            46.40N 94.19W
07/21/2014  E0.25 INCH       CROW WING          MN   CO-OP OBSERVER

1150 PM     TSTM WND DMG     LITTLEFORK              48.40N 93.56W
07/21/2014                   KOOCHICHING        MN   LAW ENFORCEMENT

            POWER OUTAGE

1150 PM     TSTM WND DMG     5 S CROSSLAKE           46.61N 94.09W
07/21/2014                   CROW WING          MN   PUBLIC

            TREE DOWN AND PONTOON BOAT FLIPPED ON HORSESHOE LAKE. VIA
            SOCIAL MEDIA.

1150 PM     TSTM WND DMG     11 WSW INTERNATIONAL FA 48.53N 93.63W
07/21/2014                   KOOCHICHING        MN   LAW ENFORCEMENT

            POWER OUTAGE.

1156 PM     TSTM WND GST     BOWSTRING               47.54N 93.80W
07/21/2014  E45.00 MPH       ITASCA             MN   AMATEUR RADIO

1157 PM     TSTM WND GST     EMILY                   46.76N 93.96W
07/21/2014  E45.00 MPH       CROW WING          MN   TRAINED SPOTTER

1205 AM     TSTM WND GST     PEQUOT LAKES            46.60N 94.32W
07/22/2014  E45.00 MPH       CROW WING          MN   LAW ENFORCEMENT

            TREES DOWN

1205 AM     TSTM WND GST     NISSWA                  46.50N 94.30W
07/22/2014  E45.00 MPH       CROW WING          MN   LAW ENFORCEMENT

            TREES DOWN

1209 AM     TSTM WND DMG     8 N TOGO                47.94N 93.16W
07/22/2014                   KOOCHICHING        MN   TRAINED SPOTTER

            TREES DOWN

1214 AM     TSTM WND GST     6 S COHASSET            47.18N 93.62W
07/22/2014  E45.00 MPH       ITASCA             MN   AMATEUR RADIO

1214 AM     TSTM WND GST     5 E SQUAW LAKE          47.63N 94.03W
07/22/2014  E45.00 MPH       ITASCA             MN   AMATEUR RADIO

1218 AM     TSTM WND DMG     10 N TOGO               47.97N 93.16W
07/22/2014                   KOOCHICHING        MN   TRAINED SPOTTER

            TREES DOWN

1229 AM     TSTM WND DMG     HILL CITY               46.99N 93.60W
07/22/2014                   AITKIN             MN   LAW ENFORCEMENT

            TREES DOWN.

1229 AM     TSTM WND GST     MCGREGOR                46.61N 93.31W
07/22/2014  E50.00 MPH       AITKIN             MN   FIRE DEPT/RESCUE

1229 AM     TSTM WND DMG     AITKIN                  46.53N 93.71W
07/22/2014                   AITKIN             MN   LAW ENFORCEMENT

            TREES DOWN.

1230 AM     TSTM WND DMG     BIG SANDY LAKE          46.76N 93.29W
07/22/2014                   AITKIN             MN   AMATEUR RADIO

            SEVERAL TREES A FOOT IN DIAMETER DOWN.

1230 AM     TSTM WND DMG     BIG SANDY LAKE          46.76N 93.29W
07/22/2014                   AITKIN             MN   BROADCAST MEDIA

            TREE FELL ON RV. BOAT DOCK DAMAGED. TIME ESTIMATED.

1242 AM     TSTM WND GST     4 NE FLOODWOOD          46.97N 92.87W
07/22/2014  M74.00 MPH       ST. LOUIS          MN   CO-OP OBSERVER

            TREES DOWN AND PROPERTY DAMAGE.

1247 AM     TSTM WND DMG     HILL CITY               46.99N 93.60W
07/22/2014                   AITKIN             MN   AMATEUR RADIO

            8 INCH DIAMETER TREE DOWN BLOCKING HIGHWAY 169. POWER
            OUTAGE.

1247 AM     TSTM WND DMG     5 E SQUAW LAKE          47.63N 94.03W
07/22/2014                   ITASCA             MN   AMATEUR RADIO

            DEAD TREE 14 TO 16 INCHES IN DIAMETER DOWN.

1247 AM     TSTM WND GST     AITKIN                  46.53N 93.71W
07/22/2014  E70.00 MPH       AITKIN             MN   LAW ENFORCEMENT

            NUMEROUS TREES DOWN THROUGHOUT THE COUNTY

0102 AM     TSTM WND DMG     3 S EVELETH             47.42N 92.54W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   PUBLIC

            A COUPLE STRUCTURES JUST WEST OF HIGHWAY 53 TOOK DAMAGE
            WITH SOME WALLS TORN OFF. THIS INFORMATION WAS PROVIDED
            VIA SOCIAL MEDIA. THE TIME WAS ESTIMATED BASED ON RADAR.

0103 AM     TSTM WND DMG     3 SE EVELETH            47.43N 92.50W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   FIRE DEPT/RESCUE

            LOTS OF LARGE TREES DOWN. THE TIME WAS ESTIMATED BASED ON
            RADAR.

0103 AM     TSTM WND DMG     3 SSE EVELETH           47.42N 92.52W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   FIRE DEPT/RESCUE

            DAMAGE AT THE EVELETH-VIRGINIA MUNICIPAL AIRPORT. ONE
            HANGER AND THE PLANE INSIDE WERE DESTROYED. TWO OTHER
            HANGERS WERE DAMAGED. ONE GARAGE ROOF WAS BLOWN OFF. THE
            TIME WAS ESTIMATED BASED ON RADAR.

0109 AM     TSTM WND DMG     GRAND LAKE              46.88N 92.40W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   PUBLIC

            POWER OUTAGE.

0109 AM     TSTM WND DMG     FLOODWOOD               46.93N 92.92W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   TRAINED SPOTTER

            TREES DOWN. ONE WAS 12 INCHES IN DIAMETER.

0113 AM     TSTM WND DMG     1 ESE BIWABIK           47.53N 92.33W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   TRAINED SPOTTER

            DOCK ON EMBARRASS LAKE FLIPPED OVER. AN 8 INCH DIAMETER
            TREE SNAPPED AND FELL ON THE DOCK. THE TIME WAS ESTIMATED
            BASED ON RADAR.

0115 AM     TSTM WND DMG     RICE LAKE TWP           46.90N 92.11W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   PUBLIC

            6-12 INCH DIAMETER ASPEN TREE SNAPPED. TIME ESTIMATED OFF
            RADAR. REPORT AND PHOTOGRAPH VIA SOCIAL MEDIA.

0115 AM     TSTM WND DMG     AURORA                  47.53N 92.24W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   PUBLIC

            MANY SMALL TREES AND SOME LARGE TREES DOWN IN AURORA. THE
            TIME WAS ESTIMATED BASED ON RADAR.

0117 AM     TSTM WND DMG     HOYT LAKES              47.51N 92.15W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   TRAINED SPOTTER

            MANY TREES BETWEEN 6 AND 12 INCHES IN DIAMETER ARE DOWN
            IN HOYT LAKES.

0123 AM     TSTM WND GST     DULUTH                  46.78N 92.12W
07/22/2014  M50.00 MPH       ST. LOUIS          MN   ASOS

0124 AM     TSTM WND DMG     EMBARRASS               47.66N 92.20W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   LAW ENFORCEMENT

            TREES AND POWER LINES DOWN.

0124 AM     TSTM WND DMG     BABBITT                 47.65N 91.94W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   LAW ENFORCEMENT

            TREES AND POWER LINES DOWN.

0130 AM     MARINE TSTM WIND DULUTH                  46.78N 92.12W
07/22/2014  M46.00 MPH       ST. LOUIS          MN   MESONET

            MEASURED AT DULM5.

0136 AM     TSTM WND DMG     EVELETH                 47.46N 92.54W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   LAW ENFORCEMENT

            POWER LINES DOWN ROUTE 53 AND 37.

0200 AM     MARINE TSTM WIND 1 N PORT WING           46.79N 91.39W
07/22/2014  M38.00 MPH       BAYFIELD           WI   BUOY

0200 AM     TSTM WND DMG     IRON RIVER              46.56N 91.41W
07/22/2014                   BAYFIELD           WI   PUBLIC

            4-5 INCH TREE LIMBS DOWN AND CORN FLATTENED. TIME
            ESTIMATE.

0214 AM     TSTM WND DMG     1 N SAND BAY            46.95N 90.89W
07/22/2014                   BAYFIELD           WI   CO-OP OBSERVER

            SEVERAL LARGE TREES DOWN ON LITTLE SAND BAY ROAD

0215 AM     MARINE TSTM WIND 6 NNE DEVILS ISLAND     47.15N 90.68W
07/22/2014  M61.00 MPH       LSZ162             WI   SHIP

            TIME ESTIMATED. SHIP STEWART J. CORT.

0220 AM     TSTM WND DMG     3 SW BAYFIELD           46.79N 90.86W
07/22/2014                   BAYFIELD           WI   CO-OP OBSERVER

            5-6 INCH DIAMETER TREE BROKEN.

0222 AM     MARINE TSTM WIND 6 N DEVILS ISLAND       47.16N 90.73W
07/22/2014  E45.00 MPH       LSZ162             WI   SHIP

            SHIP ALGOLAKE. THUNDERSTORM WITH STRONG WINDS AND HEAVY
            RAIN. TIME ESTIMATED OFF RADAR.

0224 AM     TSTM WND GST     ASHLAND                 46.58N 90.87W
07/22/2014  M46.00 MPH       ASHLAND            WI   ASOS

0225 AM     TSTM WND DMG     SEA GULL LAKE           48.13N 90.95W
07/22/2014                   COOK               MN   EMERGENCY MNGR

            WIDESPREAD TREES DOWN NEAR END OF GUNFLINT TRAIL NEAR
            SEAGULL LAKE.

0229 AM     TSTM WND DMG     DULUTH HEIGHTS          46.82N 92.16W
07/22/2014                   ST. LOUIS          MN   PUBLIC

            POWER OUTAGE.

0356 AM     HAIL             20 E HAYWARD            46.01N 91.06W
07/22/2014  M0.75 INCH       SAWYER             WI   TRAINED SPOTTER

            COVERS THE GROUND

PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE GRAND FORKS ND
1120 AM CDT TUE JUL 22 2014

            ...MORNING RAINFALL ROUNDUP...
                * FOR NORTHWEST MINNESOTA
                * AND EASTERN NORTH DAKOTA

     THE FOLLOWING ARE STORM TOTALS BASED ON DAILY 24-HOUR
     RAIN AMOUNTS AS OF 7 AM AND REPORTED BY NWS COOPERATIVE
     OBSERVERS AND AUTOMATED WEATHER STATIONS. SOME ADDITIONAL
     STORM TOTALS REPORTED BY UNOFFICAL OBSERVERS AND THE PUBLIC
     HAVE ALSO BEEN ADDED.

        ...24-HOUR RAINFALL AMOUNTS ENDING TUESDAY(07/22/14)...

PRECIPITATION IN MINNESOTA...                                RAINFALL
  LOCATION (COUNTY):                                        IN INCHES
  RAWS @ AGASSIZ NWR (MARSHALL)................................. 4.43
  ASOS @ BAUDETTE (LAKE OF THE WOODS)........................... 4.28
  CAMP NORRIS DNR (BELTRAMI).................................... 4.20
  BAUDETTE (LAKE OF THE WOODS).................................. 3.75
  GREENBUSH (ROSEAU)............................................ 3.67
  NDAWN @ MAVIE (PENNINGTON).................................... 3.56
  NDAWN @ WARREN (MARSHALL)..................................... 3.52
  WARREN 7NW (MARSHALL)......................................... 3.31
  RAWS @ BAUDETTE...MN DNR WX (LAKE OF THE WOODS)............... 3.13
  HALLOCK (KITTSON)............................................. 3.10
  ARGYLE (MARSHALL)............................................. 2.78
  WEST BRANCH WARROAD RIVER NR WARROAD..CSAH5(LAKE OF THE WOODS) 2.71
  NDAWN @ GREENBUSH 4S (ROSEAU)................................. 2.35
  AWOS @ THIEF RIVER FALLS (PENNINGTON)......................... 2.22
  CLEMENTSON (LAKE OF THE WOODS)................................ 2.09
  RAWS @ KELLIHER...MN DNR WX (BELTRAMI)........................ 2.02
  RAWS @ ROSEAU (ROSEAU)........................................ 1.82
  RAWS @ KARLSTAD MN (TWIN LAKES WMA) (KITTSON)................. 1.78
  RED LAKE FALLS (RED LAKE)..................................... 1.77
  NDAWN @ HUMBOLDT (KITTSON).................................... 1.72
  LANCASTER (KITTSON)........................................... 1.68
  CROOKSTON (POLK).............................................. 1.65
  BEMIDJI (BELTRAMI)............................................ 1.65
  NDAWN @ KENNEDY (KITTSON)..................................... 1.55
  ROSEAU (ROSEAU)............................................... 1.49
  AWOS @ HALLOCK (KITTSON)...................................... 1.49
  ROOSEVELT 5N (LAKE OF THE WOODS).............................. 1.47
  RAWS @ LAKE ITASCA 2SE (CLEARWATER)........................... 1.44
  RAWS @ BEMIDJI...MN DNR WX (BELTRAMI)......................... 1.41
  AWOS @ FOSSTON (POLK)......................................... 1.27
  AWOS @ WASKISH (BELTRAMI)..................................... 1.23
  WASKISH (BELTRAMI)............................................ 1.11
  ADA (NORMAN).................................................. 1.05
  BEMIDJI 3E (BELTRAMI)......................................... 0.98
  NDAWN @ ELDRED (POLK)......................................... 0.96
  NDAWN @ PERLEY (NORMAN)....................................... 0.86
  LAKE PARK 6S (BECKER)......................................... 0.73
  AWOS @ BEMIDJI (BELTRAMI)..................................... 0.68
  RAWS @ DETROIT LAKES RAWS (BECKER)............................ 0.66
  HAWLEY 9.1 SSE (CLAY)......................................... 0.63
  AWOS @ DETROIT LAKES (BECKER)................................. 0.59
  WADENA (WADENA)............................................... 0.54
  NEW YORK MILLS (OTTER TAIL)................................... 0.53
  TAMARAC WILDLIFE REFUGE (BECKER).............................. 0.50
  TAMARC WMR (BECKER)........................................... 0.50
  SABIN (CLAY).................................................. 0.46
  PELICAN RAPIDS 6E (OTTER TAIL)................................ 0.44
  FERGUS FALLS 1NNE (OTTER TAIL)................................ 0.42
  FERGUS FALLS 1E (OTTER TAIL).................................. 0.40
  AWOS @ FERGUS FALLS (OTTER TAIL).............................. 0.40
  RAWS @ BADOURA...MN DNR WX (HUBBARD).......................... 0.38
  ROTHSAY (WILKIN).............................................. 0.37
  MENAHGA 1E (WADENA)........................................... 0.34
  LEAF RIVER NR STAPLES...CSAH29 (WADENA)....................... 0.34
  OTTERTAIL (OTTER TAIL)........................................ 0.33
  LONG LOST LAKE (CLEARWATER)................................... 0.33
  UNDERWOOD 8NNE (OTTER TAIL)................................... 0.32
  BRECKENRIDGE 3SE (WILKIN)..................................... 0.31
  BRECKENRIDGE (WILKIN)......................................... 0.27
  ASOS @ PARK RAPIDS (HUBBARD).................................. 0.24
  OTTER TAIL RIVER AT BRECKENRIDGE (WILKIN)..................... 0.24
  ORWELL DAM (OTTER TAIL)....................................... 0.07
  NORCROSS (MUSTINKA R.) (GRANT)................................ 0.03



Last modified: July 22, 2014

 

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