Minnesota Range Maps

The Minnesota range maps are updated weekly based on a subset of records in the DNR Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program's Biotics Database. This subset does not include records of historical occurrences that are known to have been destroyed, or records with a locational uncertainty greater than 4,000 meters (i.e., records that don't permit precise mapping as there is high uncertainty as to where the species was actually observed on the ground).

Map Interpretation

The green map shading denotes historical and/or extant presence of a species within a Minnesota county as evidenced by a record in the Biotics Database subset. A blank county means there is no record of the species from that county in the subset. Note that shading does not reflect the actual distribution of a species within a particular county, but merely presence/absence. If the species has been found anywhere in the county, the entire county will be shaded.

A completely blank range map means there are no records in the Biotics Database for that species either because

  1. a decision has been made not to track the species in the database (includes gray wolf, mountain lion, common snapping turtle, and elk) or
  2. no observations meeting the criteria for inclusion in the database are known to exist in Minnesota (includes massasauga).

 

Species observations must meet certain criteria to be considered valid for entry into the Biotics Database. These criteria were developed in conjunction with NatureServe, which is the umbrella organization for Natural Heritage Programs in all 50 states, Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The consistent standards for collecting and managing data adopted by all of the NatureServe member programs allow for information sharing and analysis on regional, national, and international scales.

If you believe a map is in error, and know of a record that should be considered for entry into the Biotics Database, see report sightings of rare species.

A Note on Birds:
Fly-over observations, casual visits by songbirds to suburban feeders, and vagrants are not considered valid sightings for inclusion in the Biotics Database. For a bird observation to merit inclusion in the database, all of the following conditions must be met:

  1. the species must be heard or seen during the breeding season (varies by species but primarily June and July);
  2. the species must be heard or seen in habitat appropriate for breeding or nesting;
  3. the species must be heard or seen by a qualified observer; AND
  4. the observation must meet any additional criteria outlined in the specifications developed by NatureServe and the Minnesota Natural Heritage Program. These additional criteria are often species-specific but may include requirements such as current and likely recurring breeding, observation of a pair of birds, etc.

 

Outside of the breeding season, only bald eagle and sandhill crane observations at winter roosts and migratory roosts, respectively, are included in the database.

 


North American Range Maps

Map Interpretation

The green map shading denotes presence of a species within a particular state or province. A blank state or province means there are no known records of the species from that jurisdiction. Note that shading does not reflect the known distribution of a species within the particular jurisdiction, but merely presence/absence. If the species has been found anywhere in the state or province, the entire state or province will be shaded. A completely blank range map means no data were available to create the map.

Data sources

The distributional data depicted in the North American range maps are derived from the Minnesota DNR Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program's Biotics Database and the following sources.

 


Amphibians and reptiles

For all amphibian and reptile species except those listed below:

  • Conant, R., and J. T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians of eastern and central North America. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 450 pp.

 

For Acris crepitans (northern cricket frog):

  • Gray, R. H., L. E. Brown, L. Blackburn. 2005. Acris crepitan, Northern Cricket Frog. Pages 441-443 in M. J. Lannoo, editor. Amphibian declines: the conservation status of United States species. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

 


Birds

For all bird species, the North American range maps are based on personal communications with Minnesota DNR biologists and the individual species accounts in:

  • Poole, A., P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, editors. 1992-2002. The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

 


Butterflies and moths

For all species of butterflies and moths, the North American range maps are based on personal communications with Minnesota DNR biologists, R. Huber, and the following source:

  • NatureServe. 2008. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 24 November 2008.

 

For Hesperia uncas (uncas skipper) and Oarisma garita (garita skipper), the following supplemental source was used:

  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 583 pp.

 


Caddisflies

For all caddisfly species:

  • NatureServe. 2008. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 24 November 2008.

 


Dragonflies

For all dragonfly species:

  • NatureServe. 2008. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 24 November 2008.

 


Fishes

For all fish species:

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

 


Fungi

For Laccaria trullisata:

  • The Field Museum of Natural History. 2008. The mushroom genus Laccaria in North America: Laccaria trullissata. < http://www.fieldmuseum.org/research_collections/botany/ botany_sites/fungi/species/L.trullis/mushroom.html>. Accessed 12 December 2008.

 

There are currently no North American Range Maps available in the Rare Species Guide for the other fungi species.


Jumping Spiders

For all jumping spider species, the North American range maps are based on personal communications with W. Ehmann and the following reference:

  • NatureServe. 2008. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 24 November 2008.

 

For Phidippus apacheanus and Phidippus pius, the following supplemental source was used:

  • Edwards, G.B. 2004. Revision of the jumping spiders of the genus Phidippus (Araneae: Salticidae). Occasional Papers of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods 11:1- 156.

For Sassacus papenhoei, the following supplemental sources were used:

 

For Tutelina formicaria, the following supplemental source was used:

 


Leafhopper

For Aflexia rubranura:

  • NatureServe. 2008. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 24 November 2008.

 


Lichens

For most species of lichens, the North American range maps are based on personal communications with Minnesota DNR biologists, and the following source:

  • Brodo, I. M., S. D Sharnoff, and S. Sharnoff. 2001. Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut. 795 pp.

 

For Caloplaca parvula and Leptogium apalachense, the following supplemental source was used:

  • NatureServe. 2008. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 24 November 2008.

 

For Umbilicaria torrefacta (punctured rock tripe), the following supplemental source was used:

  • NPLichen, A Database of Lichens in the U. S. National Parks [web application]. 2008. Version 4.5. U. S. Geological Survey.

 

For Coccocarpia palmicola (salted shell lichen), the following supplemental source was used:

  • Sipman, H. J. M., and J. H. D. Wolf. 1998. Provisional checklist for the lichens of Chiapas. Acta Botanica Mexicana 45:1-29.

 

For Buellia nigra, Cladonia pseudorangiformis, and Dermatocarpon moulinsii, the following source was used:

  • Coffin, B., and L. Pfannmuller, editors. 1988. Minnesota's endangered flora and fauna. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 473 pp.

 


Mammals

For all mammal species except those listed below:

  • Wilson, D. E., and S. Ruff. 1999. The Smithsonian book of North American mammals. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 750 pp.

 

For Cryptotis parva (least shrew):

  • Whitaker, J. O., Jr. 1974. Cryptotis parva. Mammalian Species 43:1-8.

 

For Sorex fumeus (smoky shrew):

  • Owen, J. G. 1984. Sorex fumeus. Mammalian Species 215:1-8.

 


Mosses

For Tomenthypnum falcifolium (curved-leaved golden moss):

  • NatureServe. 2008. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 24 November 2008.

 

For Bryoxiphium norvegicum (sword moss):

  • Pursell, R. A. 2007. Bryoxiphiaceae. Pages 329-330 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 27. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

 

For Schistostega pennata (luminous moss):

  • Harpel, J. A. 2007. Schistostegaceae. Page 475 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 27. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

 


Mussels

For all mussel species:

  • Williams, J. D., M. L. Warren, Jr., K. S. Cummings, J. L. Harris, and R. J. Neves. 1993. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18(9):6-22.

 


Snails

For all snail species:

  • Frest, T. J. 1991. Summary status reports on eight species of candidate landsnails from the driftless area (Paleozoic Plateau), Upper Midwest. Unpublished final report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 3. 54 pp.
  • NatureServe. 2008. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 24 November 2008.

 


Tiger beetles

For all tiger beetle species, the North American range maps are based on personal communications with R. Huber and the following reference:

  • NatureServe. 2008. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 24 November 2008.

 

For Cicindela denikei (Laurentian tiger beetle) and Cicindela lepida (little white tiger beetle), the following supplemental source was used:

  • Pearson, D. L., T. G. Barraclough, and A. P. Vogler. 1997. Distributional maps for North American species of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Cicindela 29:33-84.

 


Vascular plants

For most vascular plant species, the North American range maps are based on personal communications with Minnesota DNR biologists and the following source:

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In J. T. Kartesz, and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American flora, version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC. (CD-ROM)

 

For Oryzopsis hymenoides (Indian Ricegrass), Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi (Leedy's Roseroot); Senecio canus (Gray Ragwort); and Scirpus clilntonii (Clinton's Bulrush), the following source was used:

  • NatureServe. 2008. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 24 November 2008.