Science of Watershed Health


Watershed Assessment Tool References



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Aadland, L. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Stream Habitat Program.

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Annear, T. I. Chisholm. H. Beecher, A. Locke, P. Aarestad, et al. 2002. Instream flows for riverine resource stewardship. Instream Flow Council, Cheyenne, WY


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Barr Engineering Company. February, 2004. Detailed Assessment of Phosphorus Sources to Minnesota Watersheds. Retrieved from

Benke, A. C. 2001. Importance of flood regime to invertebrate habitat in an unregulated river-floodplain ecosystem. Journal of North American Benthological Society 20, 2:225-240.

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Bledsoe, B. P. M. C. Brown. D. A. Raff. 2007. Geotools: A toolkit for fluvial system analysis. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43, 3:757-772.

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Brainwood, M. Shelley Burgin. Maria Byrne. 2006. Is the decline of freshwater mussel populations in a regulated coastal river in south-eastern Australia linked with human modification of habitat? Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 16, 5:501-516.

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Brierley, G. J. Kirstie Fryirs. 2000. River Styles, a geomorphic approach to catchment characterization: Implications for river rehabilitation in Bega catchment, New South Wales, Australia. Environmental Management 25, 6:661-679.

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Burton, M. L. Lisa J. Samuelson. Shufen Pan. 2005. Riparian woody plant diversity and forest structure along an urban-rural gradient. Urban Ecosystems 8, 1:93-106.

Buseman, L. G. Sands. 2002. Agricultural drainage publication series: Issues and answers. MN Extension 07740. viewed November 20, 2007. 


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Campbell, K. L. S. Kumar. H. P. Johnson. 1972. Stream straightening effects on flood-runoff characteristics. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 15, 94-98.

Caraco, N. F. Jonathan J. Cole. Stuart E. G. Findlay, David T. Fischer, Gregory G. Lampman, Michael L. Pace and David L. Strayer. 2000. Dissolved oxygen declines in the Hudson River associated with the invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Environmental Science & Technology 34, 7:1204-1210.

Carlisle, D. M. James Falcone. David M. Wolock, Michael R. Meador and Richard H. Norris. 2009. Predicting the natural flow regime: models for assessing hydrological alteration in streams. River Research and Applications 9999, 9999:

Center for Watershed Protection. March 2003. Impacts of Impervious cover on Aquatic Systems.

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Cho, J. V. A. Barone. S. Mostaghimi. 2009. Simulation of land use impacts on groundwater levels and streamflow in a Virginia watershed. Agricultural Water Management 96, 1:1-11.

Coats, R. M. Larsen. A. Heyvaert, J. Thomas, M. Luck and J. Reuter. 2008. Nutrient and sediment production, watershed characteristics, and land use in the Tahoe basin, California-Nevada. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 44, 3:754-770.


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Daily, G. C. 1997. Nature's Services: Societal Dependance on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Dalgleish, H. J. Abigail R. Kula. David C. Hartnett and Brett K. Sandercock. 2008. Responses of two bunchgrasses to nitrogen addition in tallgrass prairie: the role of bud bank demography. American Journal of Botany 95, 6:672-680.

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Davis, D. M. P. H. Gowda. D. J. Mulla and G. W. Randall. 2000. Modeling nitrate nitrogen leaching in response to nitrogen fertilizer rate and tile drain depth or spacing for southern Minnesota, USA. Journal of Environmental Quality 29, 5:1568-1581.

Geoffrey N. Delin. J. D. Falteisek. 2007 Groundwater Recharge in Minnesota Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2007-3002 Nov2007, USGS pdf

Detenbeck, N. E. V. J. Brady. D. L. Taylor, V. M. Snarski and S. L. Batterman. 2005. Relationship of stream flow regime in the western Lake Superior basin to watershed type characteristics. Journal of Hydrology 309, 1-4:258-276.

Detenbeck, N. E. S. L. Batterman. V. J. Brady, J. C. Brazner, V. M. Snarski, D. L. Taylor, J. A. Thompson and J. W. Arthur. 2000. A test of watershed classification systems for ecological risk assessment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19, 4:1174-1181.

Detenbeck, N. E. Colleen M. Elonen. Debra L. Taylor, Leroy E. Anderson, Terri M. Jicha and Sharon L. Batterman. 2003. Effects of hydrogeomorphic region, catchment storage and mature forest on baseflow and snowmelt stream water quality in second-order Lake Superior Basin tributaries. Freshwater Biology 48, 5:912-927.

Detenbeck, N. E. Carol A. Johnston. Gerald J. Niemi. 1993. Wetland effects on lake water quality in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. Landscape Ecology 8, 1:39-61.

Diebel, M. Mark Fedora. Stewart Cogswell. 2009. Prioritizing road crossing improvement to restore stream connectivity for stream-resident fish. Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation 1-18.

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Ekasingh, B. R. A. Letcher. 2008. Successes and failures to embed socioeconomic dimensions in integrated natural resource management modeling: Lessons from Thailand. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 78, 2-3:137-145.


Farahmand, T. S. W. Fleming. E. J. Quilty. 2007. Detection and visualization of storm hydrograph changes under urbanization: An impulse response approach. Journal of environmental management 85, 1:93-100.

Fitch, L. and N. Ambrose. 2003. Riparian area: A user's guide to health. Lethbridge, Alberta: Cows and fish program.

Fitzpatrick, F. A. James C. Knox. Heather E. Whitman. 1999. Effects of historical land-cover changes on flooding and sedimentation, North Fish Creek, Wisconsin. USGS Water Resources Investigation Report 99-4083 June 1999, 1-12.

Fleming, S. W. E. J. Quilty. 2007. Toward a practical method for setting screening-level, ecological risk-based water temperature criteria and monitoring compliance. Environmental monitoring and assessment 131, 1-3:83-94.

Flinders, C. A. R. J. Horwitz. T. Belton. 2008. Relationship of fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the mid-Atlantic uplands: Implications for integrated assessments. Ecological Indicators 8, 5:588-598.

Fox, Dennis M., and Rorke B. Bryan. 2000. The relationship of soil loss by interrill erosion to slope gradient. Catena 38.3, 2000: 211-222.

Frappier, B. Robert T. Eckert. 2007. A new index of habitat alteration and a comparison of approaches to predict stream habitat conditions. Freshwater Biology 52, 10:2009-2020.

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Gagn, F. C. Blaise. C. Andr, C. Gagnon and M. Salazar. 2007. Neuroendocrine disruption and health effects in Elliptio complanata mussels exposed to aeration lagoons for wastewater treatment. Chemosphere 68, 4:731-743.

Galatowitsch, S. M. Diane C. Whited. Richard Lehtinen, Jason Husveth and Karen Schik. 2000. The Vegetation of Wet Meadows in Relation to Their Land-use. Environmental monitoring and assessment 60, 2:121-144.

Genet, J. A. A. R. Olsen. 2008. Assessing depressional wetland quantity and quality using a probabilistic sampling design in the Redwood River watershed, Minnesota, USA. Wetlands 28, 2:324-335.

Gergel, S. E. Monica G. Turner. James R. Miller, John M. Melack and Emily H. Stanley. 2002. Landscape indicators of human impacts to riverine systems. Aquatic Sciences - Research Across Boundaries 64, 2:118-128.

Gergel, S. E. Monica G. Turner. Timothy K. Kratz. 1999. Dissolved Organic Carbon as an Indicator of the Scale of Watershed Influence on Lakes and Rivers. Ecological Applications 9, 4:1377-1390.

Gibson, J. J. M. A. Sadek. D. J. M. Stone, C. E. Hughes, S. Hankin, D. I. Cendon and S. E. Hollins. 2008. Evaporative isotope enrichment as a constraint on reach water balance along a dryland river. Isotopes in environmental and health studies 44, 1:83-98.

Goetz, S. J. R. K. Wright. A. J. Smith, E. Zinecker and E. Schaub. 2003. IKONOS imagery for resource management: Tree cover, impervious surfaces, and riparian buffer analyses in the mid-Atlantic region. Remote Sensing of Environment 88, 1-2:195-208.

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Gore, J. A. James B. Layzer. Jim Mead. 2001. Macroinvertebrate instream flow studies after 20 years: a role in stream management and restoration. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management 17, 4-5:527-542.

Gowda, P. H. David J. Mulla. Dan B. Jaynes. 2008. Simulated long-term nitrogen losses for a midwestern agricultural watershed in the United States. Agricultural Water Management 95, 5:616-624.

Groffman, P. M. Marshall Kamau Crawford. 2003. Denitrification Potential in Urban Riparian Zones. Journal of Environmental Quality 32, 3:1144-1149.


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Ha, S. J. Michael K. Stenstrom. 2008. Predictive modeling of storm-water runoff quantity and quality for a large urban watershed. Journal of Environmental Engineering 134, 9:703-711.

Haase, R. Ulrike Nolte. 2008. The invertebrate species index (ISI) for streams in southeast Queensland, Australia. Ecological Indicators 8, 5:599-613.

Hall, L. W. W. D. Killen. 2006. Historical assessments and comparisons of benthic communities and physical habitat in two agricultural streams in California's San Joaquin watershed. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A-Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 41, 11:2635-2664.

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Hayes, T. Atif Collins. Melissa Lee, Magdelena Mendoza, Nigel Noriega, A. Ali Stuart and Aaron Vonk. 2002. Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at lin ecologically relevant doses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99, 8:5476-5480.

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Jaworski, N. A. 1993. The application of the ecotone concept in defining nutrient management requirements for the upper Potomac River basin. Hydrobiologia 251, 1:341-349.

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Kapo, K. E. G. A. Burton. 2006. A geographic information systems-based, weights-of-evidence approach for diagnosing aquatic ecosystem impairment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25, 8:2237-2249.

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Ladson, A. R. Lindsay J. White. Jane A. Doolan, Brian L. Finlayson, Barry T. Hart, P. Sam Lake and John W. Tilleard. 1999. Development and testing of an Index of Stream Condition for waterway management in Australia. Fresh Water Biology 41, 2:453-468.

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