The following 6 attributes, based on the major ecological principles listed below, were used to identify Regionally Significant Terrestrial and Wetland Areas.
Some human activities, such as development and agriculture, eliminate and break up (fragment) native vegetation. When vegetation is broken up in numerous small and irregular shaped pieces (patches), the plants and animals found on the site, and the interactions that take place between plants and animals (e.g. predator and prey relationships) change.
The introduction of non-native plant species into forest and grasslands from urban gardens, trampling of vegetation from heavy pedestrian or recreational use, and increased salinity of wetlands from road salts are a few ways that adjacent urban and agricultural land uses adversely impacts natural areas.
Urban and agricultural land uses introduce new predators and may increase predator populations. Wildlife impacts include increased mortality from cat predation, car kills, killing of wildlife (snakes and bats) by landowners due to misperceptions/fear, and reduced reproductive success if breeding is disrupted by human activities.
The addition of impervious surfaces such as roads and buildings often fragments landscapes. Fragmentation and increased imperviousness change how plants, animals, wind and water move across the landscape.
Habitat connectivity may allow an animal to relocate when habitat is lost or degraded due to natural or human disturbance. Movement allows individuals from different populations to breed, which maintains genetic diversity in the population. Some animals have different vegetation requirements during different stages of their life cycle. For example, Blanding?s turtles require large wetland complexes for over wintering and dry, sandy soil grasslands for breeding. An animal?s risk of being killed (increased predation, road strikes) during movement increases in fragmented landscapes. Lake, stream and wetland habitat quality is dependent on maintaining vegetated riparian and lakeshore zones, and connectivity to upland vegetation.
Recent ecological research shows that a plot of land with many plant species is more productive and resistant to drought, pests, and other stresses than a comparable plot with only a few species.
Many human activities cause changes in the environment that lead to lower species diversity. Examples include excess nitrogen from pollutants, the introduction of invasive non-native species, and the disruption of natural processes such as natural water flow. These disruptions often lead to the elimination of many native species and the promotion of just a few species. These disturbed areas then are less able to tolerate outbreaks of pests and diseases and large-scale changes such as climate change.