The plant and fungi Watchlist contains native species of vascular plants, mosses (bryophytes), macroalgae, lichens, and fungi (as determined by experts in the specific taxa groups) that may be in need of greater conservation efforts in Minnesota. Unlike species that have been assigned official legal status (Endangered, Threatened, Special Concern), Watchlist species have no legal status. They have been placed on the Watchlist because there is a need to gather additional data on their distribution and abundance, in many cases to inform future Endangered, Threatened, and Special Concern listing decisions. The current understanding of these species may be based upon both historic and recent collections and/or field experience and observations. However, they all share the need for additional data to properly assess their status in Minnesota.
A species may be included on the Watchlist for one or more of the following reasons:
- Historic – A native species that has not been documented within the state in the past 50 years, and is thought to be extirpated. Historic species are prime candidates for targeted field surveys.
- Newly discovered/re-discovered – A native species that has recently been discovered within the state. This designation is also used for species that have been recently re-discovered in the state after being formerly designated as historic. Species in this category are prime candidates for consideration during the next revision of Minnesota’s List of Endangered, Threatened, and Special Concern Species.
- Recently delisted – A native species that was removed from the state’s List of Endangered, Threatened, and Special Concern Species during a recent list revision process. Species with this designation are still considered uncommon enough to warrant further data collection and status review in the future (Note: This category is not an automatic landing spot for all Recently Delisted species. Those that are considered adequately secure will typically not be moved to this category).
- Insufficient information – A species in this category needs additional data to determine its potential status for state Endangered, Threatened or Special Concern listing. This may be because technical taxa expertise is lacking or additional surveys are needed. Species needing monitoring may also be included in this list, as may taxa that have recently been subjected to taxonomic revision.
- Geographically limited – A native species that is thought to be just “secure enough” as to not warrant a Special Concern status or higher but is of heightened conservation interest because it has a very limited geographic range in the state. Species in this category are generally at a greater risk of being negatively impacted by climate change, invasive species, and other factors.
- Declining – A native species whose range and/or abundance is in significant decline but is not yet quite rare enough to warrant a status of Special Concern or higher. Uncommon species of increasingly threatened habitats may fit in this category.
Collecting and maintaining current data on these species between the statutorily mandated three-year Endangered, Threatened, and Special Concern Species list revision reviews will leave us in a better position to participate in the listing process and related efforts. The Watchlist includes species with conservation S-Ranks (as defined by NatureServe) of 1-Critically Imperiled, 2-Imperiled, 3-Vulnerable, 4-Apparently Secure, H-Historic and NR-Not Ranked. The ranks will potentially change as additional documentation of these species occurs. Even though no official protection is given to Watchlist species, the fact that they are being documented and tracked in the same Natural Heritage Information System database as Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern species does raise awareness of their rarity.
An excel file of the watchlist (updated 04/10/2022) is available for download. This spreadsheet contains the species listed below, the reason they were included on the Watchlist, their current S-Rank, and suspected area(s) of the state where they may be found.
The list is current as of 04/10/2023.
Suggesting an addition to the watchlist
Please complete this online form if you have a suggestion of a native species of vascular plant, moss (bryophyte), macroalgae, lichen, or fungus that you think may warrant inclusion on this list. We ask that you include sufficient detail and rationale with your suggestion. Please note submissions received via this form will be considered, but are not guaranteed to be added to the list.
Reporting watchlist species observations
Watchlist observations should be submitted using the same templates and process used for reporting an endangered, threatened or special concern species (including the collection of voucher specimens for documentation). Learn more by visiting the Natural Heritage Information System -Submitting Data section. You should email your observations to: [email protected]
- Vascular plants
Scientific name Common name Listing Reason Agastache nepetoides yellow giant hyssop Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Amerorchis rotundifolia small round-leaved orchis Declining Anagallis minima chaffweed Insufficient Information Anemone multifida cutleaf anemone Insufficient Information Aristida dichotoma churchmouse three-awn Insufficient Information Asclepias lanuginosa woolly milkweed Declining Astragalus racemosus racemose milk-vetch Historic Astragalus tenellus loose-flowered milk-vetch Historic Aureolaria grandiflora var. pulchra large-flowered false foxglove Historic Boechera collinsii Collins' rock-cress Geographically Limited Botrychium crenulatum crenulate moonwort Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Botrychium michiganense Michigan moonwort Insufficient Information Bulbostylis capillaris densetuft hairsedge Insufficient Information Callirhoe triangulata clustered poppy-mallow Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Calopogon oklahomensis Oklahoma grass pink Historic Canadanthus modestus modest aster Insufficient Information Cardamine douglassii purple cress Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Calypso bulbosa var. americana fairy slipper Declining Carex capillaris hair-like sedge Insufficient Information Carex crus-corvi raven's foot sedge Historic Carex debilis var. rudgei weak sedge Insufficient Information Carex katahdinensis Katahdin sedge Insufficient Information Carex lucorum var. lucorum Blue Ridge sedge Historic Carex lurida sallow sedge Insufficient Information Carex torreyi Torrey's sedge Insufficient Information Carex trichocarpa hairy-fruited sedge Geographically Limited Ceratophyllum echinatum spiny coontail Insufficient Information Chamaerhodos erecta Nuttall groundrose Recently Delisted Corispermum villosum eastern bugseed Insufficient Information Cornus drummondii rough-leaved dogwood Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Crataegus coccinea var. pringlei scarlet hawthorn Historic Crataegus laurentiana Laurentian hawthorn Insufficient Information Crataegus scabrida rough-leaved hawthorn Historic Crataegus sheridana Sheridan's hawthorn Insufficient Information Cuscuta umbrosa large-fruit dodder Insufficient Information Cuscuta obtusiflora var. glandulosa southern dodder Insufficient Information Cuscuta polygonorum smartweed dodder Insufficient Information Cyperus houghtonii Houghton cyperus Declining Cystopteris laurentiana Laurentian bladder fern Insufficient Information Cystopteris tennesseensis Tennessee bladder fern Insufficient Information Dendrolycopodium obscurum flat-branched tree clubmoss Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Descurainia incana Richardson tansy mustard Historic Desmodium illinoense Illinois tick trefoil Geographically Limited Didiplis diandra water purslane Historic Dodecatheon amethystinum jeweled shooting star Geographically Limited Dryopteris filix-mas male fern Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Eclipta prostrata yerba de tajo Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Eleocharis engelmannii Engelmann spikerush Insufficient Information Eleocharis mamillata soft-stem spike-rush Insufficient Information Erigeron pulchellus var. tolsteadii poor robin's fleabane Historic Erysimum asperum western wallflower Insufficient Information Euphorbia hexagona six-angled spurge Historic Eutrochium maculatum var. foliosum spotted Joe pye weed Historic Galium circaezans var. hypomalacum licorice bedstraw Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Galium palustre marsh bedstraw Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Gaura biennis biennial gaura Insufficient Information Geum laciniatum rough avens Insufficient Information Gleditsia triacanthos honey locust Insufficient Information Hedeoma pulegioides American pennyroyal Historic Hesperostipa curtiseta small porcupinegrass Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Hieracium longipilum long-bearded hawkweed Geographically Limited Hypericum kalmianum Kalm St. John-wort Insufficient Information Juncus anthelatus greater poverty rush Insufficient Information Lactuca floridana Florida lettuce Insufficient Information Lemna obscura little duckweed Insufficient Information Lemna perpusilla minute duckweed Insufficient Information Leucophysalis grandiflora dwarf ground cherry Insufficient Information Leucospora multifida narrowleaf paleseed Insufficient Information Lomatium orientale desert parsley Geographically Limited Lupinus perennis wild lupine Declining Lycopus virginicus Virginia bugleweed Insufficient Information Lysimachia lanceolata lance-leaved loosestrife Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Monolepis nuttalliana povertyweed Historic Morus rubra red mulberry Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Muhlenbergia schreberi dropseed muhly grass Insufficient Information Myriophyllum pinnatum cutleaf water milfoil Insufficient Information Oenothera laciniata slashed evening primrose Insufficient Information Oenothera nuttallii Nuttall's evening primrose Insufficient Information Ophioglossum pusillum northern adder's tongue Insufficient Information Orthocarpus luteus owl clover Geographically Limited Oxypolis rigidior cowbane Declining Penstemon digitalis foxglove beard tongue Insufficient Information Penstemon pallidus pale beard tongue Insufficient Information Plantago virginica hoary plantain Insufficient Information Platanthera dilatata var. dilatata tall white bog orchid Declining Platanthera hookeri Hooker's orchid Declining Poa arida Plains bluegrass Geographically Limited Poa sylvestris woodland bluegrass Insufficient Information Polygonum hydropiperoides mild water pepper Insufficient Information Potamogeton x hagstroemii Hagström pondweed Insufficient Information Potamogeton x haynesii Haynes' pondweed Insufficient Information Potentilla hippiana woolly cinquefoil Insufficient Information Potentilla lasiodonta sandhills cinquefoil Insufficient Information Potentilla paradoxa Nicollet cinquefoil Insufficient Information Potentilla rivalis brook cinquefoil Insufficient Information Prenanthes aspera hairy rattlesnake-root Declining Prenanthes crepidinea nodding rattlesnakeroot Historic Puccinellia nuttalliana alkali grass Insufficient Information Quercus muehlenbergii chestnut oak Historic Rhus aromatica var. aromatica fragrant sumac Insufficient Information Rhynchospora capitellata brownish beak sedge Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Rorippa sinuata spreading yellow cress Insufficient Information Rubus wheeleri Wheeler's blackberry Insufficient Information Rudbeckia subtomentosa sweet coneflower Geographically Limited Satureja vulgaris wild basil Insufficient Information Schoenoplectus purshianus var. purshianus weak-stalk bulrush Insufficient Information Scirpus georgianus Georgia bulrush Insufficient Information Scirpus pendulus rufous bulrush Insufficient Information Silene hitchguirei mountain campion Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Silphium laciniatum compass plant Declining Sparganium glomeratum clustered bur-reed Recently Delisted Sporobolus vaginiflorus poverty dropseed Insufficient Information Symphyotrichum laeve var. geyeri smooth aster Historic Symphyotrichum pilosum var. pilosum awl aster Insufficient Information Symphyotrichum pilosum var. pringlei awl aster Insufficient Information Thalictrum amphibolum purple meadow-rue Insufficient Information Triodanis leptocarpa slender-fruited Venus' looking-glass Historic Verbena x deamii bigbract verbena-hoary vervain hybrid Historic Verbena x perriana bigbract verbena-white vervain hybrid Historic Vernonia baldwinii western ironweed Insufficient Information Viola epipsila spp. repens dwarf marsh violet Insufficient Information Viola x primulifolia primrose-leaved violet Insufficient Information Wolffia brasiliensis pointed watermeal Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Woodsia obtusa ssp. obtusa blunt-lobe cliff Insufficient Information Zizania aquatica var. aquatica southern wild rice Geographically Limited
Scientific name Common name Primary reason for listing Diphyscium foliosum a species of moss Insufficient Information Fontinalis welchiana Welch's fontinalis moss Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Philonotis yezoana philonotis moss Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Riccia sorocarpa common crystalwort Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Splachnum ampullaceum a species of moss Insufficient Information Tayloria serrata serrate-leaved dung moss Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Tetraplodon angustatus a species of dung moss Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Tetraplodon mnioides slender cruet-moss Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Tomentypnum falcifolium curved-leaved golden moss Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Scientific name Common name Primary reason for listing Lychnothamnus barbatus a species of macroalgae Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Scientific name Common name Primary reason for listing Anaptychia palmulata shaggy-fringe lichen Geographically Limited Arctoparmelia incurva finger ring lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Arthopyrenia salicis a species of lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Bryoria implexa boreal horsehair lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Bryoria kockiana boreal horsehair lichen Geographically Limited Bryoria nadvornikiana spiny gray horsehair lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Calicium pinastri a species of lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Cetraria aculeata spiny shield lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Cetraria arenaria sand-loving Iceland lichen Geographically Limited Cetraria ericetorum Iceland lichen Geographically Limited Cetraria islandica Iceland lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Cetraria laevigata striped Iceland lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Chaenotheca brachypoda a species of lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Chaenotheca nitidula a species of lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Chaenothecopsis asperopoda a species of lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Chaenothecopsis brevipes a species of lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Chaenothecopsis exilis a species of lichen Chaenothecopsis ochroleuca a species of lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Chaenothecopsis viridialba a species of lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Cladonia floerkeana gritty British soldiers lichen Insufficient Information Cladonia norvegica baby powderhorn lichen Insufficient Information Cladonia robbinsii Robbins' cup lichen Insufficient Information Collema flaccidum flaking tarpaper lichen Declining Collema nigrescens blistered Jelly lichen Declining Collema pulchellum blistered Jelly lichen Declining Cyphelium notarisii a species of lichen Insufficient Information Dendriscocaulon intricatulum olive-thorn lichen Declining Dermatocarpon intestiniforme quilted stippleback lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Dermatocarpon meiophyllizum a stippleback lichen Geographically Limited Didymosphaeria futilis a species of lichen Declining Enchylium bachmanianum Bachman's Jjelly lichen Insufficient Information Enchylium coccophorum tar Jelly lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Enchylium conglomeratum dotted jelly lichen Declining Enchylium expansum a species of lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Enchylium limosum lime-loving tarpaper lichen Declining Enchylium polycarpon shaly jelly lichen Insufficient Information Enchylium tenax tar jelly lichen Insufficient Information Fuscopannaria leucosticta rimmed shingles lichen Geographically Limited Heppia adglutinata soil ruby lichen Insufficient Information Heterodermia hypoleuca cupped fringe lichen Declining Heterodermia japonica Japanese fringe lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Heterodermia leucomelos elegant fringe lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Hypogymnia incurvoides lattice tube lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Hypotrachyna britannica a loop lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Lepraria disjuncta a species of dust lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Leproloma membranaceum a species of lichen Leptogium acadiense a species of lichen Declining Leptogium arsenei wrinkled jellyskin Lichen Insufficient Information Leptogium compactum a species of lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Leptogium corticola blistered jellyskin Insufficient Information Leptogium hirsutum Jellyskin lichen Declining Leptogium milligranum stretched jellyskin lichen Declining Leptogium rivulare flooded jellyskin lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Leptogium saturninum bearded jellyskin lichen Declining Lichinella minnesotensis a species of lichen Historic Lobaria quercizans smooth lungwort Declining Lobothallia alphoplaca puffed sunken-disk lichen Insufficient Information Melanelia hepatizon rimmed camouflage lichen Insufficient Information Microcalicium ahlneri a species of lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Microcalicium conversum a species of lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Pannaria conoplea mealy-rimmed shingle lichen Declining Pannaria subfusca a species of lichen Declining Pannaria tavaresii coral-rimmed shingle lichen Insufficient Information Parmotrema cetratum ruffle lichen Historic Parmotrema hypotropum powdered ruffle lichen Insufficient Information Parmotrema margaritatum southeastern powdered ruffle lichen Insufficient Information Parmotrema perlatum black stone flower Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Parmotrema subtinctorium mottled ruffle lichen Insufficient Information Peltigera scabrosa greater toad pelt lichen Geographically Limited Peltula patellata stuffed rock-olive lichen Historic Phaeophyscia endococcinodes red-cored starburst shadow lichen Geographically Limited Phaeophyscia hispidula whiskered shadow lichen Declining Phaeophyscia squarrosa scaly shadow lichen Declining Phylliscum demangeonii black rock-wafer lichen Geographically Limited Physconia muscigena ground frost lichen Insufficient Information Physconia subpallida pale-bellied frost lichen Geographically Limited Placidium arboreum tree stipplescale lichen Declining Placynthium stenophyllum pale-bellied Ink lichen Geographically Limited Polychidium muscicola eyed moss-thorns lichen Insufficient Information Psora decipiens blushing scale lichen Declining Psora icterica yellow scale lichen Historic Psora rubiformis pea-green scale lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Punctelia appalachensis Appalachian speckled shield lichen Insufficient Information Punctelia borreri blinking speckleback lichen Insufficient Information Pyxine sorediata mustard lichen Declining Ramalina farinacea dotted ramalina Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Ramalina labiosorediata powdery twig lichen Geographically Limited Ramalina obtusata a species of lichen Geographically Limited Rhizocarpon lecanorinum a species of lichen Insufficient Information Rhizoplaca melanophthalma green rock-posy lichen Geographically Limited Rinodina wetmorei a species of lichen Insufficient Information Romjularia lurida imbricate scale lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Rostania occultata crusted tarpaper lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Scytinium gelatinosum rose-petalled jellyskin lichen Geographically Limited Scytinium teretiusculum curly jellyskin lichen Declining Solorina saccata chocolate chip lichen Insufficient Information Solorina spongiosa fringed chocolate chip lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Sphinctrina leucopoda a species of lichen Sticta beauvoisii fingered moon lichen Declining Synalissa ramulosa eyed rockgorgon lichen Geographically Limited Thyrea confusa jelly strap lichen Geographically Limited Umbilicaria hirsuta hairy navel lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Umbilicaria hyperborea blistered rock tripe lichen Declining Umbilicaria phaea emery rock tripe lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered Usnea amblyoclada a beard lichen Geographically Limited Usnea angulata angular beard lichen Geographically Limited Usnea ceratina warty beard lichen Geographically Limited Usnea dasaea a species of lichen Geographically Limited Usnea entoviolata a species of lichen Geographically Limited Usnea perhispidella a species of lichen Geographically Limited Vulpicida juniperina limestone sunshine lichen Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Scientific name Common name Primary reason for listing Ascocoryne turficola a species of fungi Newly Discovered/Re-Discovered