Plant and fungi watchlist

The plant and fungi Watchlist contains native species of vascular plants, mosses (bryophytes), macroalgae, lichens, and fungi (as determined by experts in the specific taxa groups) that may be in need of greater conservation efforts in Minnesota. Unlike species that have been assigned official legal status (Endangered, Threatened, Special Concern), Watchlist species have no legal status. They have been placed on the Watchlist because there is a need to gather additional data on their distribution and abundance, in many cases to inform future Endangered, Threatened, and Special Concern listing decisions. The current understanding of these species may be based upon both historic and recent collections and/or field experience and observations. However, they all share the need for additional data to properly assess their status in Minnesota.

A species may be included on the Watchlist for one or more of the following reasons:

  • Historic – A native species that has not been documented within the state in the past 50 years, and is thought to be extirpated. Historic species are prime candidates for targeted field surveys.
  • Newly discovered/re-discovered – A native species that has recently been discovered within the state. This designation is also used for species that have been recently re-discovered in the state after being formerly designated as historic. Species in this category are prime candidates for consideration during the next revision of Minnesota’s List of Endangered, Threatened, and Special Concern Species.
  • Recently delisted – A native species that was removed from the state’s List of Endangered, Threatened, and Special Concern Species during a recent list revision process. Species with this designation are still considered uncommon enough to warrant further data collection and status review in the future (Note: This category is not an automatic landing spot for all Recently Delisted species. Those that are considered adequately secure will typically not be moved to this category).
  • Insufficient information – A species in this category needs additional data to determine its potential status for state Endangered, Threatened or Special Concern listing. This may be because technical taxa expertise is lacking or additional surveys are needed. Species needing monitoring may also be included in this list, as may taxa that have recently been subjected to taxonomic revision or their status as a native species of Minnesota’s flora is uncertain.
  • Geographically limited – A native species that is thought to be just “secure enough” as to not warrant a Special Concern status or higher but is of heightened conservation interest because it has a very limited geographic range in the state. Species in this category are generally at a greater risk of being negatively impacted by climate change, invasive species, and other factors.
  • Declining – A native species whose range and/or abundance is in significant decline but is not yet quite rare enough to warrant a status of Special Concern or higher. Uncommon species of increasingly threatened habitats may fit in this category.

Collecting and maintaining current data on these species between the statutorily mandated three-year Endangered, Threatened, and Special Concern Species list revision reviews will leave us in a better position to participate in the listing process and related efforts. The Watchlist includes species with conservation S-Ranks (as defined by NatureServe) of 1-Critically Imperiled, 2-Imperiled, 3-Vulnerable, 4-Apparently Secure, H-Historic and NR-Not Ranked. The ranks will potentially change as additional documentation of these species occurs. Even though no official protection is given to Watchlist species, the fact that they are being documented and tracked in the same Natural Heritage Information System database as Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern species does raise awareness of their rarity.

An excel file of the watchlist (updated 04/10/2022) is available for download. This spreadsheet contains the species listed below, the reason they were included on the Watchlist, their current S-Rank, and suspected area(s) of the state where they may be found.

The list is current as of 04/10/2023.

Suggesting an addition to the watchlist

Please complete this online form if you have a suggestion of a native species of vascular plant, moss (bryophyte), macroalgae, lichen, or fungus that you think may warrant inclusion on this list. We ask that you include sufficient detail and rationale with your suggestion. Please note submissions received via this form will be considered, but are not guaranteed to be added to the list.

Reporting watchlist species observations

Watchlist observations should be submitted using the same templates and process used for reporting an endangered, threatened or special concern species (including the collection of voucher specimens for documentation). Learn more by visiting the Natural Heritage Information System -Submitting Data section. You should email your observations to: [email protected]

Vascular plants
Scientific nameCommon nameListing Reason
Agastache nepetoidesyellow giant hyssopNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Amerorchis rotundifoliasmall round-leaved orchisDeclining
Anagallis minimachaffweedInsufficient Information
Anemone multifidacutleaf anemoneInsufficient Information
Aristida dichotomachurchmouse three-awnInsufficient Information
Asclepias lanuginosa woolly milkweedDeclining
Astragalus racemosusracemose milk-vetchHistoric
Astragalus tenellusloose-flowered milk-vetchHistoric
Aureolaria grandiflora var. pulchralarge-flowered false foxgloveHistoric
Boechera collinsiiCollins' rock-cressGeographically Limited
Botrychium crenulatumcrenulate moonwortNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Botrychium michiganenseMichigan moonwortInsufficient Information
Bulbostylis capillarisdensetuft hairsedgeInsufficient Information
Callirhoe triangulataclustered poppy-mallowNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Calopogon oklahomensisOklahoma grass pinkHistoric
Canadanthus modestusmodest asterInsufficient Information
Cardamine douglassiipurple cressNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Calypso bulbosa var. americanafairy slipperDeclining
Carex capillarishair-like sedgeInsufficient Information
Carex crus-corviraven's foot sedgeHistoric
Carex debilis var. rudgeiweak sedgeInsufficient Information
Carex katahdinensisKatahdin sedgeInsufficient Information
Carex lucorum var. lucorumBlue Ridge sedgeHistoric
Carex luridasallow sedgeInsufficient Information
Carex torreyiTorrey's sedgeInsufficient Information
Carex trichocarpahairy-fruited sedgeGeographically Limited
Ceratophyllum echinatumspiny coontailInsufficient Information
Chamaerhodos erectaNuttall groundroseRecently Delisted
Corispermum villosumeastern bugseedInsufficient Information
Cornus drummondiirough-leaved dogwoodNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Crataegus coccinea var. pringleiscarlet hawthornHistoric
Crataegus laurentianaLaurentian hawthornInsufficient Information
Crataegus scabridarough-leaved hawthornHistoric
Crataegus sheridanaSheridan's hawthornInsufficient Information
Cuscuta umbrosalarge-fruit dodderInsufficient Information
Cuscuta obtusiflora var. glandulosasouthern dodderInsufficient Information
Cuscuta polygonorumsmartweed dodderInsufficient Information
Cyperus houghtoniiHoughton cyperusDeclining
Cystopteris laurentianaLaurentian bladder fernInsufficient Information
Cystopteris tennesseensisTennessee bladder fernInsufficient Information
Dendrolycopodium obscurumflat-branched tree clubmossNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Descurainia incanaRichardson tansy mustardHistoric
Desmodium illinoenseIllinois tick trefoilGeographically Limited
Didiplis diandrawater purslaneHistoric
Dodecatheon amethystinumjeweled shooting starGeographically Limited
Dryopteris filix-masmale fernNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Eclipta prostrata yerba de tajoNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Eleocharis engelmanniiEngelmann spikerushInsufficient Information
Eleocharis mamillata soft-stem spike-rushInsufficient Information
Erigeron pulchellus var. tolsteadiipoor robin's fleabaneHistoric
Erysimum asperum western wallflowerInsufficient Information
Euphorbia hexagonasix-angled spurgeHistoric
Eutrochium maculatum var. foliosumspotted Joe pye weedHistoric
Galium circaezans var. hypomalacumlicorice bedstrawNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Galium palustremarsh bedstrawNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Gaura biennisbiennial gauraInsufficient Information
Geum laciniatumrough avensInsufficient Information
Gleditsia triacanthoshoney locustInsufficient Information
Hedeoma pulegioidesAmerican pennyroyalHistoric
Hesperostipa curtisetasmall porcupine grassNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Hieracium longipilumlong-bearded hawkweedGeographically Limited
Hypericum kalmianumKalm St. John-wortInsufficient Information
Juncus anthelatusgreater poverty rushInsufficient Information
Lactuca floridanaFlorida lettuceInsufficient Information
Lemna obscuralittle duckweedInsufficient Information
Lemna perpusillaminute duckweedInsufficient Information
Leucophysalis grandifloradwarf ground cherryInsufficient Information
Leucospora multifidanarrowleaf paleseedInsufficient Information
Lomatium orientale desert parsleyGeographically Limited
Lupinus perenniswild lupineDeclining
Lycopus virginicusVirginia bugleweedInsufficient Information
Lysimachia lanceolatalance-leaved loosestrifeNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Monolepis nuttallianapovertyweedHistoric
Morus rubrared mulberryNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Muhlenbergia schreberidropseed muhly grassInsufficient Information
Myriophyllum pinnatumcutleaf water milfoilInsufficient Information
Oenothera laciniataslashed evening primroseInsufficient Information
Oenothera nuttalliiNuttall's evening primroseInsufficient Information
Ophioglossum pusillumnorthern adder's tongueInsufficient Information
Orthocarpus luteusowl cloverGeographically Limited
Oxypolis rigidiorcowbaneDeclining
Penstemon digitalisfoxglove beard tongueInsufficient Information
Penstemon palliduspale beard tongueInsufficient Information
Plantago virginicahoary plantainInsufficient Information
Platanthera dilatata var. dilatatatall white bog orchidDeclining
Platanthera hookeriHooker's orchidDeclining
Poa aridaPlains bluegrassGeographically Limited
Poa sylvestriswoodland bluegrassInsufficient Information
Polygonum hydropiperoidesmild water pepperInsufficient Information
Potamogeton x hagstroemiiHagström pondweedInsufficient Information
Potamogeton x haynesiiHaynes' pondweedInsufficient Information
Potentilla hippianawoolly cinquefoilInsufficient Information
Potentilla lasiodontasandhills cinquefoilInsufficient Information
Potentilla paradoxaNicollet cinquefoilInsufficient Information
Potentilla rivalisbrook cinquefoilInsufficient Information
Prenanthes asperahairy rattlesnake-rootDeclining
Prenanthes crepidineanodding rattlesnakerootHistoric
Puccinellia nuttallianaalkali grassInsufficient Information
Quercus muehlenbergiichestnut oakHistoric
Rhus aromatica var. aromaticafragrant sumacInsufficient Information
Rhynchospora capitellatabrownish beak sedgeNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Rorippa sinuataspreading yellow cressInsufficient Information
Rubus wheeleriWheeler's blackberryInsufficient Information
Rudbeckia subtomentosasweet coneflowerGeographically Limited
Satureja vulgariswild basilInsufficient Information
Schoenoplectus purshianus var. purshianusweak-stalk bulrushInsufficient Information
Scirpus georgianusGeorgia bulrushInsufficient Information
Scirpus pendulusrufous bulrushInsufficient Information
Silene hitchguireimountain campionNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Silphium laciniatumcompass plantDeclining
Sparganium glomeratumclustered bur-reedRecently Delisted
Sporobolus vaginifloruspoverty dropseedInsufficient Information
Symphyotrichum laeve var. geyerismooth asterHistoric
Symphyotrichum pilosum var. pilosumawl asterInsufficient Information
Symphyotrichum pilosum var. pringleiawl asterInsufficient Information
Thalictrum amphibolumpurple meadow-rueInsufficient Information
Triodanis leptocarpaslender-fruited Venus' looking-glassHistoric
Verbena x deamiibigbract verbena-hoary vervain hybridHistoric
Verbena x perrianabigbract verbena-white vervain hybridHistoric
Vernonia baldwiniiwestern ironweedInsufficient Information
Viola epipsila spp. repensdwarf marsh violetInsufficient Information
Viola x primulifoliaprimrose-leaved violetInsufficient Information
Wolffia brasiliensispointed watermealNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Woodsia obtusa ssp. obtusablunt-lobe cliffInsufficient Information
Zizania aquatica var. aquaticasouthern wild riceGeographically Limited
Scientific nameCommon namePrimary reason for listing
Diphyscium foliosuma species of mossInsufficient Information
Fontinalis welchianaWelch's fontinalis mossNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Philonotis yezoanaphilonotis mossNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Riccia sorocarpacommon crystalwortNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Splachnum ampullaceuma species of mossInsufficient Information
Tayloria serrataserrate-leaved dung mossNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Tetraplodon angustatusa species of dung mossNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Tetraplodon mnioidesslender cruet-mossNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Tomentypnum falcifoliumcurved-leaved golden mossNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Scientific nameCommon namePrimary reason for listing
Lychnothamnus barbatusa species of macroalgaeNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Scientific nameCommon namePrimary reason for listing
Anaptychia palmulatashaggy-fringe lichenGeographically Limited
Arctoparmelia incurvafinger ring lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Arthopyrenia salicisa species of lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Bryoria implexaboreal horsehair lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Bryoria kockianaboreal horsehair lichenGeographically Limited
Bryoria nadvornikianaspiny gray horsehair lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Calicium pinastria species of lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Cetraria aculeataspiny shield lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Cetraria arenariasand-loving Iceland lichenGeographically Limited
Cetraria ericetorumIceland lichenGeographically Limited
Cetraria islandicaIceland lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Cetraria laevigatastriped Iceland lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Chaenotheca brachypodaa species of lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Chaenotheca nitidulaa species of lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Chaenothecopsis asperopodaa species of lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Chaenothecopsis brevipesa species of lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Chaenothecopsis exilisa species of lichen 
Chaenothecopsis ochroleucaa species of lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Chaenothecopsis viridialbaa species of lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Cladonia floerkeanagritty British soldiers lichenInsufficient Information
Cladonia norvegicababy powderhorn lichenInsufficient Information
Cladonia robbinsiiRobbins' cup lichenInsufficient Information
Collema flaccidumflaking tarpaper lichenDeclining
Collema nigrescensblistered Jelly lichenDeclining
Collema pulchellumblistered Jelly lichenDeclining
Cyphelium notarisiia species of lichenInsufficient Information
Dendriscocaulon intricatulumolive-thorn lichenDeclining
Dermatocarpon intestiniformequilted stippleback lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Dermatocarpon meiophyllizuma stippleback lichenGeographically Limited
Didymosphaeria futilisa species of lichenDeclining
Enchylium bachmanianumBachman's jelly lichenInsufficient Information
Enchylium coccophorumtar Jelly lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Enchylium conglomeratumdotted jelly lichenDeclining
Enchylium expansuma species of lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Enchylium limosumlime-loving tarpaper lichenDeclining
Enchylium polycarponshaly jelly lichenInsufficient Information
Enchylium tenaxtar jelly lichenInsufficient Information
Fuscopannaria leucostictarimmed shingles lichenGeographically Limited
Heppia adglutinatasoil ruby lichenInsufficient Information
Heterodermia hypoleucacupped fringe lichenDeclining
Heterodermia japonicaJapanese fringe lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Heterodermia leucomeloselegant fringe lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Hypogymnia incurvoideslattice tube lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Hypotrachyna britannicaa loop lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Lepraria disjunctaa species of dust lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Leproloma membranaceuma species of lichen 
Leptogium acadiensea species of lichenDeclining
Leptogium arseneiwrinkled jellyskin LichenInsufficient Information
Leptogium compactuma species of lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Leptogium corticolablistered jellyskinInsufficient Information
Leptogium hirsutumJellyskin lichenDeclining
Leptogium milligranumstretched jellyskin lichenDeclining
Leptogium rivulareflooded jellyskin lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Leptogium saturninumbearded jellyskin lichenDeclining
Lichinella minnesotensisa species of lichenHistoric
Lobaria quercizanssmooth lungwortDeclining
Lobothallia alphoplacapuffed sunken-disk lichenInsufficient Information
Melanelia hepatizonrimmed camouflage lichenInsufficient Information
Microcalicium ahlneria species of lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Microcalicium conversuma species of lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Pannaria conopleamealy-rimmed shingle lichenDeclining
Pannaria subfuscaa species of lichenDeclining
Pannaria tavaresiicoral-rimmed shingle lichenInsufficient Information
Parmotrema cetratumruffle lichenHistoric
Parmotrema hypotropumpowdered ruffle lichenInsufficient Information
Parmotrema margaritatumsoutheastern powdered ruffle lichenInsufficient Information
Parmotrema perlatumblack stone flowerNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Parmotrema subtinctoriummottled ruffle lichenInsufficient Information
Peltigera scabrosagreater toad pelt lichenGeographically Limited
Peltula patellatastuffed rock-olive lichenHistoric
Phaeophyscia endococcinodesred-cored starburst shadow lichenGeographically Limited
Phaeophyscia hispidulawhiskered shadow lichenDeclining
Phaeophyscia squarrosascaly shadow lichenDeclining
Phylliscum demangeoniiblack rock-wafer lichenGeographically Limited
Physconia muscigenaground frost lichenInsufficient Information
Physconia subpallidapale-bellied frost lichenGeographically Limited
Placidium arboreumtree stipplescale lichenDeclining
Placynthium stenophyllumpale-bellied Ink lichenGeographically Limited
Polychidium muscicolaeyed moss-thorns lichenInsufficient Information
Psora decipiensblushing scale lichenDeclining
Psora ictericayellow scale lichenHistoric
Psora rubiformispea-green scale lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Punctelia appalachensisAppalachian speckled shield lichenInsufficient Information
Punctelia borreriblinking speckleback lichenInsufficient Information
Pyxine sorediata mustard lichenDeclining
Ramalina farinaceadotted ramalinaNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Ramalina labiosorediata powdery twig lichenGeographically Limited
Ramalina obtusataa species of lichenGeographically Limited
Rhizocarpon lecanorinuma species of lichenInsufficient Information
Rhizoplaca melanophthalma green rock-posy lichenGeographically Limited
Rinodina wetmoreia species of lichenInsufficient Information
Romjularia luridaimbricate scale lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Rostania occultatacrusted tarpaper lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Scytinium gelatinosum rose-petalled jellyskin lichenGeographically Limited
Scytinium teretiusculum curly jellyskin lichenDeclining
Solorina saccatachocolate chip lichenInsufficient Information
Solorina spongiosa fringed chocolate chip lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Sphinctrina leucopodaa species of lichen 
Sticta beauvoisii fingered moon lichenDeclining
Synalissa ramulosa eyed rock gorgon lichenGeographically Limited
Thyrea confusa jelly strap lichenGeographically Limited
Umbilicaria hirsutahairy navel lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Umbilicaria hyperborea blistered rock tripe lichenDeclining
Umbilicaria phaeaemery rock tripe lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Usnea amblyocladaa beard lichenGeographically Limited
Usnea angulataangular beard lichenGeographically Limited
Usnea ceratina warty beard lichen Geographically Limited 
Usnea dasaeaa species of lichenGeographically Limited
Usnea entoviolataa species of lichenGeographically Limited
Usnea perhispidella a species of lichenGeographically Limited
Vulpicida juniperina limestone sunshine lichenNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered
Scientific nameCommon namePrimary reason for listing
Ascocoryne turficolaa species of fungiNewly Discovered/Re-Discovered

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