Range maps

Minnesota Range Maps

The Minnesota range maps are updated bi-weekly based on a subset of records in the DNR Natural Heritage Information System's Biotics Database. This subset does not include records of historical occurrences that are known to have been destroyed or records with a locational uncertainty greater than 4,000 meters (i.e., records that don't permit precise mapping as there is high uncertainty as to where the species was actually observed on the ground).

Map Interpretation

The green map shading denotes historical and/or extant presence of a species within a Minnesota county as evidenced by a record in the Biotics Database subset. A blank county means there is no record of the species from that county in the subset. Note that shading does not reflect the actual distribution of a species within a particular county but merely presence/absence. If the species has been found anywhere in the county, the entire county will be shaded.

A completely blank range map means there are no records in the Biotics Database for that species either because

  1. a decision has been made not to track the species in the database (includes Mountain Lion and Elk); or
  2. no observations meeting the criteria for inclusion in the database are known to exist in Minnesota (includes Massasauga); or.
  3. the species has been removed from the list of endangered, threatened, or special concern species (includes Gray Wolf, Bald Eagle, cliff goldenrod, and coralberry).

Species observations must meet certain criteria to be considered valid for entry into the Biotics Database. These criteria were developed in conjunction with NatureServe, which is the umbrella organization for Natural Heritage Information Systems in all 50 states, Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The consistent standards for collecting and managing data adopted by all of the NatureServe member programs allow for information sharing and analysis on regional, national, and international scales.

A Note on Birds:
Fly-over observations, casual visits by songbirds to suburban feeders, and vagrants are not considered valid sightings for inclusion in the Biotics Database. For a bird observation to merit inclusion in the database, all of the following conditions must be met:

  1. the species must be heard or seen during the breeding season (varies by species but primarily June and July);
  2. the species must be heard or seen in habitat appropriate for breeding or nesting;
  3. the species must be heard or seen by a qualified observer; AND
  4. the observation must meet any additional criteria outlined in the specifications developed by NatureServe and the Minnesota Natural Heritage Program. These additional criteria are often species-specific but may include requirements such as current and likely recurring breeding, observation of a pair of birds, etc.

Outside of the breeding season, only Bald Eagle and Sandhill Crane observations at winter roosts and migratory roosts, respectively, are included in the database.


Contiguous U.S. and Canada Range Maps

Map Interpretation

The green map shading denotes presence of a species within a particular state or province. A blank state or province means there are no known records of the species from that jurisdiction. Note that shading does not reflect the known distribution of a species within the particular jurisdiction but merely presence/absence. If the species has been found anywhere in the state or province, the entire state or province will be shaded. A completely blank range map means no data were available to create the map.

Data sources

The distributional data depicted in the contiguous U.S. and Canada range maps are derived from the Minnesota DNR Natural Heritage Information System's Biotics Database and the following sources.


Amphibians and reptiles

For all amphibian and reptile species:

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 3 March 2016.

Birds

For all bird species:

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: an online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 3 March 2016.

Butterflies and moths

For all species of butterflies and moths, the contiguous U.S. and Canada range maps are based on personal communications with Ronald L. Huber, Minnesota DNR biologists, and the following source:

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: an online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 3 March 2016.

For Catocala abbreviatella (Abbreviated Underwing) and Catocala whitneyi (Whitney’s Underwing) the following supplemental sources were used:

  • North American Moth Photographers Group. 2012. North American Moth Photographers Group: digital guide to moth identification [web application]. Mississippi Entomological Museum at Mississippi State University. http://www.mothphotographersgroup.msstate.edu. Accessed 21 July 2016.

  • Borth, R.J., and T.S. Barina. 1991. Observations of Amorpha feeding Catocala (Noctuidae) in Wisconsin. Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society. 45:371-373.

  • Metzler, E.H., J.A. Shuey, L.A. Ferge, R.A. Henderson, and P.Z. Goldstein. 2005. Contributions to the understanding of tallgrass prairie-dependent butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) and their biogeography in the United States. Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey New Series. Volume 15, Number I. Columbus. 143 pp.

For Schinia lucens (Leadplant Flower Moth) the following supplemental sources were used:

  • North American Moth Photographers Group. 2012 North American Moth Photographers Group: digital guide to moth identification [web application]. Mississippi Entomological Museum at Mississippi State University. http://www.mothphotographersgroup.msstate.edu. Accessed 21 July 2016.

  • Lotts, K., and T. Naberhaus, coordinators. 2017. Butterflies and moths of North America: collecting and sharing data about Lepidoptera [web application]. http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org. Accessed 28 March 2017.

For Hesperia uncas (Uncas Skipper) and Oarisma garita (Garita Skipperling), the following supplemental source was used:

  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America: a natural history and field guide. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 583 pp.

Caddisflies

For all caddisfly species:

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 3 March 2016.

Dragonflies

For all dragonfly species:

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 3 March 2016.

Fishes

For all fish species:

  • Page, L. M., and B.M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, Massachusetts. 688 pp.

For Clinostomus elongatus (Redside Dace) the following supplemental source was used:

  • Tiemann, J.S., and M.H.S. Perez. 2012. Status of the Redside Dace (Clinostomus elongates) in Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, Illinois State Academy of Science 105:145-152.

Fungi

For all fungi the following sources were used:


Jumping Spiders

For all jumping spider species, the contiguous U.S. and Canada range maps are based on personal communications with William J. Ehmann and the following reference:

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 3 March 2016.

For Habronattus calcaratus maddisoni and Habronattus texanus, the following supplemental source was used:

  • Griswold, C.E. 1987. A revision of the jumping spider genus Habronattus F.O.P,-Cambridge (Araneae: Salticidae), with phenetic and cladistics analyses. University of California Publications on Entomology 107. University of California, Berkeley. 344 pp.

For Marpissa grata, the following supplemental source was used:

  • Richman, D.B., B. Cutler, and D.E. Hill. 2011. Salticidae of North America, including Mexico. Peckhamia 95.1:1-88.

For Pelegrina arizonensis, the following supplemental sources were used:

  • Cutler, B., and D.T. Jennings. 1985. A revision of the Metaphidippus arizonensis group (Araneae, Salticidae). Journal of Arachnology 13:1-8.

  • Maddison, W.P. 1996. Pelegrina fraganillo and other jumping spiders formerly placed in the genus Metaphidippus (Araneae: Salticidae). Bulletin of Museum of Comparative Zoology 154:215-368.

For Phidippus apacheanus, the following supplemental sources were used:

  • Edwards, G.B. 2004. Revision of the jumping spiders of the genus Phidippus (Araneae: Salticidae). Occasional Papers of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods 11:1-156.

  • Richman, D.B., B. Cutler, and D.E. Hill. 2011. Salticidae of North America, including Mexico. Peckhamia 95.1:1-88.

For Phidippus pius, the following supplemental source was used:

  • Edwards, G.B. 2004. Revision of the jumping spiders of the genus Phidippus (Araneae: Salticidae). Occasional Papers of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods 11:1-156.

For Sassacus papenhoei, the following supplemental sources were used:

  • Canadian Arachnologist. 2006. Nearctic Spider Database [web application]. Canadian Arachnologist. Accessed 2 July 2006.

  • Spiders of North America Check-list Committee. 2006. Spiders of North America (north of Mexico) [web application]. American Arachnological Society. http://www.americanarachnology.org/northamericanspiders.html. Accessed 27 June 2006.

For Tutelina formicaria, the following supplemental source was used:


Leafhoppers

For all leafhopper species:

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 3 March 2016.

Lichens

For most lichen species, the contiguous U.S. and Canada range maps are based on personal communications with Otto T. Gockman and the following sources:

  • Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (CNALH). 2016. http://lichenportal.org/portal/collections/harvestparams.php.Accessed 17 November 2016.

  • NYBG Steere Herbarium (NYBG). 2016. The New York Botanical Garden C. V. Starr Virtual Herbarium [web application]. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/. Accessed 17 November 2016.

  • Brodo, I. M., S. D Sharnoff, and S. Sharnoff. 2001. Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut. 795 pp.

For Arctoparmelia centrifuga (a ring lichen), the following supplemental source was used:

  • Hinds, J. W., and P. L. Hinds. 2007. Macrolichens of New England (Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, Volume 96). New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, New York. 608 pp.

For Caloplaca parvula and Leptogium apalachense, the following source was used:

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 3 March 2016.

For Cladonia wainioi (Wainio’s reindeer lichen), and Dermatocarpon moulinsii, the following source was used:

  • Coffin, B., and L. Pfannmuller, editors. 1988. Minnesota's endangered flora and fauna. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 473 pp.

For Coccocarpia palmicola (salted shell lichen), the following supplemental source was used:

  • Sipman, H. J. M., and J. H. D. Wolf. 1998. Provisional checklist for the lichens of Chiapas. Acta Botanica Mexicana 45:1-29.

For Umbilicaria torrefacta (punctured rock tripe lichen), the following supplemental source was used:

  • NPLichen, A Database of Lichens in the U. S. National Parks [web application]. 2008. Version 4.5. U. S. Geological Survey. Accessed 11 December 2008.

Mammals

For all mammal species:

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 3 March 2016.

Mosses

For most moss species, the contiguous U.S. and Canada range maps are based on personal communications with Johanne (Jans) Janssens, Minnesota DNR biologists, and the following sources:

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. 2007. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 27, Bryophytes: Mosses, Part 1. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. 734 pp.

  • Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria (CNABH). 2017. http://bryophyteportal.org/portal/collections/harvestparams.php. Accessed February 2017.

For Frullania selwyniana (Selwyn’s ear-leaf liverwort), Cryptocolea imbricata (hidden-perianth liverwort), and Trichocolea tomentella (a liverwort) the following source was used:

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 3 March 2016.

Mussels

For all mussel species:

  • Williams, J. D., M. L. Warren, Jr., K. S. Cummings, J. L. Harris, and R. J. Neves. 1993. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18(9):6-22.

Snails

For all snail species:

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 3 March 2016.

Tiger beetles

For all tiger beetle species:

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 3 March 2016.

Vascular plants

For all vascular plant species, the contiguous U.S. and Canada range maps are based on personal communications with Minnesota DNR biologists and the following sources:

  • NatureServe. 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Accessed 3 March 2016.

  • Kartesz, J.T., The Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2015. North American Plant Atlas [web application]. Biota of North America Program (BONAP), Chapel Hill, North Carolina. http://bonap.net/napa Accessed November and December 2016. [maps generated from Kartesz, J.T. 2015. Floristic Synthesis of North America, Version 1.0. Biota of North America Program (BONAP). (in press)].