Botrychium spathulatum W.H. Wagner
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It is characteristic for moonworts to appear above ground for only brief periods; in dry years, they may be seen for only a few weeks; and in very dry years, they may not appear at all (Wagner and Wagner 1990). Predicting exactly when B. spathulatum will be at its peak is difficult; but, if it happens at all, it will likely be during the month of June.
Welby Smith (MNDNR), 2018
References and Additional Information
Chadde, S, and G. Kudray. 2003. Conservation assessment for Spoon-leaf Moonwort (Botrychium spathulatum). United States Forest Service, Eastern Region, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 37 pp.
Farrar, D. R. 2011. Systematics and taxonomy of the genus Botrychium. <http://www.public.iastate.edu/~herbarium/botrychium.html>. Accessed 13 February 2013.
Johnson-Groh, C., C. Riedel, L. Schoessler, and K. Skogen. 2002. Belowground distribution and abundance of Botrychium gametophytes and juvenile sporophytes. American Fern Journal 92(2):80-92.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2003. Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota: the Laurentian mixed forest province. Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota. 352 pp.
NatureServe. 2009. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia.
Peck, J. H., C. J. Peck, and D. R. Farrar. 1990. Influences of life history attributes on formation of local and distant fern populations. American Fern Journal 80(4):126-142.
Wagner, W. H., Jr., and F. S. Wagner. 1990a. Notes on the fan-leaflet group of moonworts in North America with descriptions of two new members. American Fern Journal 80(3):73-81.
Wagner, W. H., Jr., and F. S. Wagner. 1990b. Moonworts (Botrychium subg. Botrychium) of the Upper Great Lakes region, U.S.A. and Canada, with descriptions of two new species. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium 17:313-325.
Wagner, W. H., Jr., and F. S. Wagner. 1993. Botrychium. Pages 86-101 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Oxford University Press, New York.
Zika, P. F., and D. R. Farrar. 2009. Botrychium ascendens W. H. Wagner (Ophioglossaceae) in Newfoundland and notes on its origin. American Fern Journal 99(4):249-259.