Groundwater is the water beneath the land surface that fills the spaces in rock and sediment. It is replenished by precipitation, which can take weeks, months, or years, depending on where you are in Minnesota. Groundwater flows into many lakes and streams, which is why they stay wet or keep flowing even during a dry spell. 

Groundwater supplies 75 percent of Minnesota's drinking water and 90 percent of agricultural irrigation. Availability varies throughout the state and may be limited in areas for larger withdrawals.

State Agency Roles

  • Minnesota Department of Natural Resources: availability and ecological impacts
  • Minnesota Department of Agriculture: agricultural pesticide and fertilizer contamination
  • Minnesota Pollution Control Agency: industrial contamination
  • Minnesota Department of Health: drinking water supply

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Data and Maps





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