Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila)

A mature Siberian elm in summer

 
 

Siberian elm is deciduous tree that has been widely planted in Minnesota. It has spread to open, sunny areas such as roadsides and grasslands where it can form dense thickets.

Description

Appearance

Siberian elm is a deciduous tree, 30 – 60 feet tall, with an open rounded crown and slender, spreading branches.

Leaves and Stem

Leaves are arranged alternately along the stems. They are small (1- 2 inches), elliptic, toothed, short-pointed at the tip, and slightly uneven at the base (although much less so than American elm). On mature trees, bark is dark gray with shallow grooves. Silver-gray twigs have a zig-zag shape with a leaf bud at each bend.

Flowers

Siberian elm flowers are light green to reddish, lack petals and occur in small, compact, drooping clusters of two to five. Flowers appear between March and May, before leaves develop.

Seeds

Siberian elm fruit is called a samara. The samara is winged, round, and smooth and contains one seed. The fruit hangs in clusters and is spread by the wind.

Roots

Siberian elm has a shallow and widely spreading root system. When Siberian elm trees are cut, they can resprout from the stump and roots.

Biology

Siberian elm is a perennial deciduous tree that grows well in disturbed areas and blooms from March to May. Its seed germination rate is high and seedlings establish quickly in sparsely vegetated areas. It often grows in open, sunny areas such as roadsides, grasslands, and along waterways.

Origin and Spread

A native of eastern Asia, Siberian elm was introduced to the U.S. in the 1860s for its hardiness, fast growth, and ability to grow in various moisture conditions. It is resistant to Dutch elm disease. It is sold commercially as a shelterbelt and windbreak tree. Siberian elm is found throughout the Midwest and most Minnesota counties. Siberian elm is generally no longer recommended for planting due to its invasiveness, brittle branches that can break easily, and susceptibility to pest problems.

Refer to EDDMapS Distribution Maps for current distribution.

Don't be fooled by these look-alikes

  • American elm, Ulmus americana (native) - Has much larger leaves than Siberian elm (2.8 inches long versus under 2 inches long for Siberian elm).
  • Red elm, Ulmus rubra (native) - Has much larger leaves than Siberian elm (2.8 inches long versus under 2 inches long for Siberian elm).
  • Lacebark elm, Ulmus parviflora (non-native) - Flowers in late summer or fall versus March to May for Siberian elm. The tip and teeth of leaves are less pointed and more blunt than Siberian elm leaves.
 
Regulatory Classification

This species is not regulated.

Threat to Minnesota

The tree can invade and dominate disturbed prairies in just a few years.

What you should do

One way that invasive plant seeds and fragments can spread is in soil. Sometimes plants are planted purposefully. You can prevent the spread of invasive plants.

PlayCleanGo: Stop Invasive Species in Your Tracks

  • REMOVE plants, animals & mud from boots, gear, pets & vehicle.
  • CLEAN your gear before entering & leaving the recreation site.
  • STAY on designated roads & trails.
  • PLANT non-invasive species.
Native Substitutes
 
Control Methods

Mechanical control can be done by girdling trees in late spring – plants will die over one to two years. Pulling seedlings by hand and prescribed burning can also be effective.

Herbicide control can be done by cutting the stem and applying glyphosate or triclopyr to the cut stump. Oil-based triclopyr ester products can also be sprayed along the base of an un-cut stem, coating all sides of the lower 12-18 inches of the main stem.These are systemic herbicides that are taken up by plants and move within the plant, which can kill leaves, stems, and roots.

Reporting

This species is unregulated, but you can add to the public information about this species by reporting new occurrences through EDDMapS Midwest.

Resources