A tree is any woody plant that can reach a height of 15 feet or more at maturity and that usually is single-stemmed and has a crown, or branched-out area, at the top. That distinguishes trees from shrubs, which are woody but short and multi-stemmed, and from vines, which may be long and woody but lack a crown.
To 52 species of trees, Minnesota is home. The Minnesota's Forest Treasures poster shows 35 of these "natives." Not shown are hemlock, American mountain ash, northern mountain ash, river birch, pin cherry, Kentucky coffeetree, rock elm, slippery elm (red elm), eastern hophornbeam (ironwood), American hornbeam (blue beech), black maple, mountain maple, red mulberry, black oak, chinkapin oak, northern pin oak, and swamp white oak.
Down to Basics
All of Minnesota's native species belong to one of two categories: gymnosperms or angiosperms.
Gymnosperms are trees whose seeds are not encased in a structure such as a fruit or nut. Most gymnosperms bear their seeds in cones, so they are also called conifers ("conebearers"), and have thin needlelike leaves that sometimes earn them the name needleleaf. Virtually all are evergreen, meaning they shed only a portion of their needles each year. People in the wood products industry often refer to coniferous trees as softwoods.
The second major kind of tree, the angiosperms, have covered seeds. Also known as deciduous or broadleaf trees, trees in this category drop their leaves each autumn. They are the ones that make the forest so colorful each fall. These trees are sometimes referred to as hardwoods (even though their wood is not necessarily harder than that of softwoods!).
To obtain more information about trees and their identification and care, try these resources:
- Trees of Minnesota is a pocket-size, spiral-bound field guide to Minnesota's native tree species. Each tree is identified by form, bark, leaf, fruit, range and wood. There is even a handy ruler that folds out from the back cover, making it easy to check leaf size.
- A Beginners' Guide to Minnesota Trees , an introductory book for youngsters (for use when leaves are on the trees) identifies 36 tree species native to Minnesota using symbols, illustrations and notes explaining the basics.